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Updated: Nov 26, 2022

Who is the King of the North of the Daniel chapter 11?

Before answering this, we must establish some basic principles of prophetic interpretation of the symbolic language used in prophecy.


  • We must make the Bible its own expositor.

  • We must allow the Bible to explain the symbols.

  • We must compare Scripture with Scripture

  • 2 Pet 1:20 " prophecy of the Scripture is of any private interpretation.”

  • 1 Cor 2:13 “...comparing spiritual things with spiritual”

  • Isa 28:9, 10 “Line upon line, line upon line; here a little, and there a little.”

  • Isa 8:20 “To the law and to the testimony: if they speak not according to this word it is because there is no light in them”

The following are symbols used in prophecy to describe kingdoms or nations.

  1. “King” used interchangeably with "Kingdom" - Dan 2:37-38

  2. “Mountain” symbolic of a "kingdom' - Dan 2:35, Rev 17:9

  3. “Beasts” used interchangeably with “Kings”- Dan 7:17

  4. “Beasts” also said to be "Kingdoms" - Dan 7:23

  5. “Horns” represent Kings / Kingdoms - Dan 8:20-22

  6. “Heads” symbolic of kingdoms - Dan 7:6, Dan 2:38

  7. “Waters” symbolic of kingdoms - Rev 17:15

  8. “Great City” used interchangeably with "kingdom" - Rev 14:8, 16:19

  9. “Ribs” in Bear's mouth represent kingdoms the Ram conquered - Dan 7:7, Dan 8:4


Literal & local kingdoms in the old testament typify the global & spiritual in our day. The names remain the same but that which they refer to takes on a symbolic meaning when the Kingdom of Rome transitions to Papal Rome. The three angels messages of Revelation 14 and that of Revelation 18 include the cry that Babylon is fallen and to "come out of her my people". The Babylon of Revelation does not refer to the literal Babylon of King Nebuchadnezzar's day but to spiritual Babylon - see later.

  • LITERAL LOCAL Babylon => Spiritual Babylon (false religion world-wide).

  • LITERAL LOCAL Israel => Spiritual Israel (the Christian church)

  • LITERAL LOCAL sanctuary => Heavenly Sanctuary - for all mankind.

  • LITERAL LOCAL Jezebel => Spiritual Jezebel of Revelation.

  • LITERAL LOCAL River Euphrates => Spiritual Euphrates of Revelation.

  • LITERAL LOCAL 7 Churches => Spiritual 7 churches of Revelation.


  • Daniel follows the repeat & enlarge principle in the prophecies.

  • The last earthly power in Daniel 2, 7, 8 is Rome.

  • The last earthly power described in Daniel 11 must, therefore, be Rome.

“Does the eleventh chapter of the prophecy of Daniel cover the ground measured by chapters two, seven, and eight? If so, then the last power in that chapter is Rome." James White, Signs of the Times, July 22, 1880; Also R&H, Nov. 29, 1877.


  • Daniel 11 focuses on the kings of the North & South.

  • There is no Biblical rule for a chapter to be all symbolic or all literal.

  • Chapter breaks were not given by God.

  • God did not define where the chapter ends. These were added by man.

  • When comparing Scripture with Scripture points to the last part of the chapter being symbolic, this over-rides all human rules of interpretation.

  • Interpretations requiring the end of the chapter to be known are private interpretations.


  • The Daniel 2 image commences with literal Babylon, the head of Gold.

  • Daniel 2 ends with spiritual Babylon at the feet of iron & clay

  • Daniel chapters 5 & 8 fill in the rest of the image's kingdoms.

  • Babylon => Medo-Persia => Grecia => Rome => Papal Rome.

  • Daniel 2 has the image of a man

  • Daniel 7 has the eyes of a man and the mouth of a man

  • Daniel 11 has the MEN ruling in those kingdoms commencing with Persia.

  • Daniel 11 is a further detailed explanation of Daniel 8.

  • Daniel 8 ends with the little horn - Papal Rome.

  • Hence Daniel 11 must end with the last MAN of the Image - Papal Rome

  • Papal Rome is therefore the King of the North of Daniel 11.

  • There is no Turkey in all this [no pun intended].

In Daniel chapter 2, the Image is interpreted as follows:


King Nebuchadnezzar's Babylon is the Head of Gold and the King of the North of the Daniel 2 image.


Daniel 2:39 "And after thee shall arise another kingdom inferior to thee, and another third kingdom of brass, which shall bear rule over all the earth."

After Babylon, the mighty power of the Medes & Persians, the second kingdom, comes to power overthrowing Babylon. The narrative is told in Daniel chapter 5.


Daniel 2:39 "And after thee shall arise ...... another third kingdom of brass, which shall bear rule over all the earth."

Grecia crushes the Medes & Persians in Daniel chapter 8 as we see these powers at war in the symbolism of the Ram (Medo-Persia) & the He-Goat (Grecia)


Daniel 2:40 "And the fourth kingdom shall be strong as iron: forasmuch as iron breaketh in pieces and subdueth all things: and as iron that breaketh all these, shall it break in pieces and bruise." Rome enters the prophecy in Daniel 8 as the Little Horn. It arises in the latter time of the four divisions of the Grecian kingdom after Alexander the Great's empire was carved up by his four generals - Cassander, Lysimachus, Ptolomey and Seleucus. The characteristics of this horn unmistakably point to Rome both Imperial and Papal. Note the transition from Pagan Rome to Papal Rome as the iron legs give way to the feet of Iron (ROME) and Clay (?)


Note the following:

  • Daniel 2 has the image of a MAN representing the prophetic kingdoms.

  • Daniel 7 contains the eyes of a MAN

  • Daniel 7 also contains the mouth of a MAN

  • Daniel 11 has the MEN ruling the prophetic kingdoms.

  • Revelation 13 has the number of a MAN

  • Revelation 13 has the name of a MAN

Daniel 11 - the MEN who ruled in those kingdoms:

  • Xerxes - Persia.

  • Alexander the Great - Grecia.

  • Julius Caesar etc. - Rome.

  • Popes - Papal Rome


The last power that comes to its end in Daniel 8:25 is Papal Rome - "he shall be broken without hand". With Daniel 11 being a more detailed explanation of Daniel 8, it goes to follow that the last power to come to its end in Daniel 11:45 is Papal Rome, the King of the North - "..shall come to his end,..none shall help him"



Verses 1 & 2 - Medo-Persia and its four kings.

Also I (Gabriel) in the first year of Darius the Mede, even I, stood to confirm and to strengthen him. And now will I (Gabriel) shew thee the truth. Behold, there shall stand up yet three kings in Persia; (Medo-Persia) and the fourth (Xerxes I, the Great, alias Ahasuerus of Esther 1:1-7) shall be far richer than they all: and by his strength through his riches he shall stir up all against the realm of Grecia. vs 1,2

Four Persian kings which followed Cyrus were:

1. Cambyses II 530-522BC

2. False Smerdis alias Gaumata. Reigned part of 522BC, and hindered the work of rebuilding the sanctuary in Jerusalem.

3. Darius I 522-486BC.

4. Xerxes I, the Great, (486-475BC. This is the Ahasuerus of Esther 1:1-7). He was “richer than all” and with his wealth he raised a huge army intending to conquer Greece. - “by his strength through his riches he shall stir up all against the realm of Grecia"

Pythius, a Lydian, offered to help fund Xerxes’ invasion of Grecia. Upon asking who this man was, Xerxes received this reply: “...he is, next to yourself, the richest man of whom we have any knowledge.” Heredotus, book 7, sec 27, Loeb Classical Library, p 343. cf. Est 1:4-7.


Verses 3 & 4 mighty king - Alexander the Great

Break up of Grecia into 4 kingdoms and eventually 2 territories : Kingdoms of the North & South

Verse 3: "And a mighty king [Alexander the Great - Grecia] shall stand up, [come to power] that shall rule with great dominion, and do according to his will." cf

Daniel 10:20 Then said he, Knowest thou wherefore I come unto thee? and now will I return to fight with the prince of Persia: and when I am gone forth, lo, the prince of Grecia shall come. At the death of Alexander the Great, the Grecian empire was divided among his four generals, Cassander. Lysimachus, Ptolomey and Seleucus.

Verse 4: And when he shall stand up, his kingdom shall be broken, and shall be divided toward the four winds of heaven; and not to his posterity, nor according to his dominion which he ruled: [each division was weaker than the whole] for his kingdom shall be plucked up, even for others beside those.

Broken = Alexander the great was the mighty king who ruled with great dominion but died at the height of his power.

Divided toward the four winds = After Alexander’s death Greece was divided not among his children but among four of his generals (Parallels the four horns on the Grecian He-Goat: Daniel 8:8, 22). Alexander’s young son was murdered and Alexander’s generals took upon themselves the titles and styles of kings. See Diadorus, Book 19, sec 105, Loeb Classical Library, p119

  1. Cassander - Greece and the adjacent countries, which lay to the west

  2. Lysimachus - Thrace, Asia Minor, the Hellespont and Bosphorus & north of Palestine

  3. Seleucus - Syria and Babylon, which lay to the east;

  4. Ptolemy - Egypt & neighbouring countries, which lay to the south.

The Grecian Empire finally resolved into two Kingdoms:

The Kingdom of the North centred in Syria and ruled by the King of the North - Seleucus

The Kingdom of the South centred in Egypt and ruled by the King of the South - Ptolemy


Verse 5: Ptolemy and Seleucus

"And the king of the south [Ptolemy 1 - Egypt] shall be strong, and one of his [one of Ptolemy’s] princes; [Seleucus Nicator, 305-281BC,] and he [Seleucus] shall be strong above him, [above Ptolemy], and have dominion; his dominion shall be a great dominion." [The Seleucid Empire]

“Seleucus ruled from the Mediterranean to the Indus...having a territory 5 to 6 times as large as that of Ptolemy. His dominion was emphatically a great dominion.” Egypt and Babylon, p 207.

Arrian, the leading historian of the period said that Seleucus was "the greatest king of those who succeeded Alexander, and the most royal mind, and ruled over the greatest extent of territory, next to Alexander." Anabasis of Alexander vii. 22).

Verse 6 - Berenice, daughter of the King of the South

"And in the end of years they shall join themselves together; for the king's daughter of the south shall come to the king of the north to make an agreement: but she shall not retain the power of the arm; neither shall he stand, nor his arm: but she shall be given up, and they that brought her, and he that begat her, and he that strengthened her in these times."

About 35 years after the death of Seleucus 1 a notable marriage alliance took place but it failed to bring peace. There were frequent wars between the kings of Egypt and Syria. Especially was this the case with Ptolemy Philadelphus, the second king of Egypt, and Antiochus Theos, third king of Syria. They at length agreed to make peace upon condition that Antiochus Theos should put away his former wife, Laodice, and her two sons, and should marry Berenice, the daughter of Ptolemy Philadelphus. Ptolemy accordingly brought his daughter to Antiochus, bestowing with her an immense dowry. {1897 UrS, DAR 250.4}

History records the accurate fulfillment of the continuing conflicts between the Ptolemies and the Seleucids.

Verse 6: And in the end of years they [kingdoms of the North & South] shall join themselves together; for the king's daughter of the south [Berenice, the daughter of Ptolemy II Philadelphus] shall come to the king of the north [Antiochus II Theos, 261-246BC] to make an agreement: [to marry to solidify peace] but she [Berenice] shall not retain the power of the arm; [Antiochus later divorced Berenice and took back Laodice] neither shall he [Antiochus] stand, [Antiochus died suddenly ? poisoned by Laodice] nor his arm: [some read, “his seed” referring to his children by Berenice] but she [Berenice] shall be given up, [divorced] and they that brought her, [maids] and he that begat her, [vowel change suggests her child who was murdered - see RSV] and he that strengthened her in these times. [probably Antiochus] See Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ed., Vol. 10, p618, art. Seleucus II.

Verse 6: “Halfway through this century (249 BC.) the desultory warfare between Egypt and the Seleucid power came to a temporary end (Dan 11:6). Ptolemy II, Philadelphus, gave his daughter Berenice with a great dowry to Antiochus II, Theos. When Ptolemy died (247 BC.) Antiochus’ divorced wife Laodice was restored to favor, and Antiochus died suddenly [poisoned by Laodice] in order that she might regain her power. Berenice and her son were likewise removed from the path of her son Seleucus……the new king of Egypt, Ptolemy III, Euergetes I, invaded the Seleucid territory, ‘entered the fortress of the king of the north’ (Dan 11:7 sqq.), and returned - laden with the spoils, images captured from Egypt by Cambyses, and captives (Jerome on Daniel loc. cit.) - to put down a domestic rebellion.” Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Ed., art. Palestine]

Berenice (Seleucid Queen) - Wikipedia

Berenice (Ancient Greek: Βερενίκη, Berenikē) (c.275 BC[1]–246 BC), also called Berenice Phernophorus ("Dowry Bearer") or Berenice Syra, was the daughter of Ptolemy II Philadelphus of his first wife Arsinoe I of Egypt.

Around 252 BC, following the peace agreement of 253 BC between Antiochus and Ptolemy to end the Second Syrian War, she married the Seleucid monarch Antiochus II Theos, who divorced his wife Laodice I and transferred the succession to Berenice's children.

In 246 BC, when Ptolemy died, Antiochus II took up again with his first wife, Laodice. Antiochus died shortly thereafter, many suspect from poisoning. Queen Berenice claimed the regency for her infant son Antiochus however, she and her son were both killed by Laodice. Berenice's brother, Ptolemy III Euergetes, succeeded their father and set about to avenge his sister's murder by invading Syria and having Laodice killed. This is also mentioned in the Book of Daniel 11:6.[2]"

2.John H. Walton, Victor H. Matthews and Mark W. Chavalas. IVP Bible Background Commentary, 2000.


*KOTN = King of the North

**KOTS - King of the South

But out of a branch of her roots shall one stand up [Berenice’s brother, Ptolemy III Euergetes] in his estate, which shall come with an army, and shall enter into the fortress of the king of the north, [Ptolemy III attacked Laodice’s son, Seleucus II Callinicus, 246-226], and shall deal against them, and shall prevail:


"And shall also carry captives into Egypt their gods, with their princes, and with their precious vessels of silver and of gold; and he shall continue more years than the king of the north. So the king of the south shall come into his kingdom, and shall return into his own land."


"But his [Seleucus II Callinicus, the KON], sons [Seleucus III Ceranus Soter, who was murdered after a short reign, & Antiochus III Magnus (the Great)] shall be stirred up, and shall assemble a multitude of great forces: and one [Antiochus III Magnus (the Great)] shall certainly come, and overflow, and pass through: [In 219BC he retook much from his rival Ptolemy] then shall he return, and be stirred up, even to his fortress."


"And the king of the south [Ptolemy IV Philopater] shall be moved with choler, [anger] and shall come forth and fight with him, even with the king of the north: [Antiochus III]: and he [Antiochus III, king of the north] shall set forth a great multitude;[62,000 infantry, 6000 cavalry, 102 elephants (Polybius, Histories, v. 79)]; but the multitude shall be given into his" [Ptolemy IV’s] hand. [Ptolemy IV was victorious at the battle of Raphia, 217 B.C. AntiochusIII is reputed to have lost 10,000 infantry and 300 cavalry, plus 4000 prisoners.]

"And when he [Ptolemy IV] hath taken away the multitude, his heart shall be lifted up; [When in Jerusalem he attempted to enter the most holy place but the Jews withstood him. This upset Ptolemy] and he shall cast down many ten thousands: [He slaughtered 40-60,000 Jews in Alexandria] but he shall not be strengthened by it." [Ptolemy IV Philopater did not capitalize on his victory over the north. He died 205 B.C.? and his four-five year old son, Ptolemy V Epiphanes who ruled 204?-180 B.C., took the throne]


"For the king of the north [Antiochus 111] shall return, [Antiochus saw five year old Ptolemy V Epiphanes on the Egyptian throne as a good opportunity to attack the South] and shall set forth a multitude greater than the former, and shall certainly come after certain years [literally, “at the end of times, years.” The period is probably the 16 years which passed after the Battle of Raphia before Antiochus’ second campaign against the south] with a great army and with much riches.


"And in those times there shall many stand up against the king of the south: also the robbers of thy people shall exalt themselves to establish the vision; but they shall fall."

[Heb. “periyts” - literally BREAKERS or destroyers. Same word used in Ps 17:4. Compare Daniel 7:23 “Thus he said, The fourth beast shall be the fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall be diverse from all kingdoms, and shall DEVOUR the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and BREAK it in pieces.”] Rome, the breakers / conquerers of Daniel's people enters the prophecy to establish the vision and the correctness of the vision.

Rome’s appearance at this point confirms the accuracy of the vision.

Myer’s General History: “Syria, or the kingdom of the Selucidae (312-65B.C.).- Under its first rulers this kingdom comprised nominally almost all the countries of Asia conquered by Alexander, thus stretching from the Hellespont to the Indus; but in reality the monarchy embraced only Asia Minor, Syria, and the Old Assyria and Babylonia...but finally the country was overrun by the Roman Legions and was made part of the Roman Republic.” (63B.C.).” Myer’s General History

"Antiochus, king of Syria, and Philip, king of Macedonia, during the reign of Ptolemy Philopater, had discovered the strongest zeal for the interests of that monarch, and were ready to assist him on all occasions. Yet no sooner was he dead, leaving behind him an infant, whom the laws of humanity and justice enjoined them not to disturb in the possession of his father's kingdom, than they immediately joined in a criminal alliance, and excited each other to shake off the lawful heir, and divide his dominions between them. Philip was to have Caria, Libya, Cyrenaica, and Egypt; and Antiochus, all the rest. With this view, the latter entered Coele-Syria and Palestine, and in less than two campaigns made an entire conquest of the two provinces, with all their cities and dependencies. Their guilt, says Polybius, would not have been quite so glaring, had they, like tyrants, endeavored to gloss over their crimes with some specious pretense; but, so far from doing this, their injustice and cruelty were so barefaced, that to them was applied what is generally said of fishes, that the larger ones, though of the same species, prey on the lesser. One would be tempted, continues the same author, at seeing the most sacred laws of society so openly violated, to accuse Providence of being indifferent and insensible to the most horrid crimes; but it fully justified its conduct by punishing those two kings according to their deserts; and made such an example of them as ought, in all succeeding ages, to deter others from following their example. For, while they were meditating to dispossess a weak and helpless infant of his kingdom by piecemeal, Providence raised up the Romans against them, who entirely subverted the kingdoms of Philip and Antiochus, and reduced their successors to almost as great calamities as those with which they intended to crush the infant king." - Ancient History, Book 18, chap. 50. {1897 UrS, DAR 256.3}


"So the king of the north [Antiochus III] shall come, and cast up a mount, [siegeworks] and take the most fenced cities: [Sidon and Gaza both fell to Antiochus III] and the arms [military forces] of the south shall not withstand, neither his chosen people, neither shall there be any strength to withstand [Egypt, "the arms of the south" or King of the South, fell].

Verses 16 - 30 takes in the following:

  • Pagan Rome, the new King of the North after it conquers the Northern Kingdom.

  • Julius Caesar

  • Augustus Caesar

  • Tiberius Caesar

  • Jesus Christ - vs 22


"But he [Rome] that cometh against him [against Antiochus III] shall do according to his own will, [Have power over all] and none shall stand before him: [Rome would conquer all] and he [Rome] shall stand in the glorious land, [Palestine] which by his hand shall be consumed [conquered]."

Pagan Rome conquers the Kingdom of the North and takes on the title "King of the North".

Note the characteristics of this power in verses 16, 14, 22

  • Do according to his own will.

  • None shall stand before him.

  • He shall stand in the glorious land (Palestine)

  • The glorious land will be consumed (conquered) by this power.

  • This power arose after the division of the Grecian kingdom.

  • This power is the robbers of thy (Daniel's) people - v 14

  • This power crucified the Prince of the Covenant - v 22

Only one power fits the bill - Imperial or Pagan Rome.

This power corresponds to the little horn of Daniel 8 / King of fierce countenance after the division of the Grecian Empire -Daniel 8:23

Moses predicted this power would arise and decimate God's people:

Deut 28:29,50 - "The LORD shall bring a nation against thee from far, from the end of the earth, as swift as the eagle flieth; a nation whose tongue thou shalt not understand; A nation of fierce countenance, which shall not regard the person of the old, nor shew favour to the young:"

As we saw earlier, "King" and "Kingdom" used interchangeably in prophecy. This "nation" of fierce countenance is the King of fierce countenance of Daniel 8:23 which understood dark sentences. Israel did not understand Latin, the language / tongue of Rome.


"He [Rome] shall also set his face [determine] to enter with the strength of his whole kingdom, and upright ones with him; thus shall he do: and he shall give him [give to Rome] the daughter of women, [Cleopatra] corrupting her: but she shall not stand on his side, neither be for him.


"After this shall he turn his face unto the isles, and shall take many: but a prince for his own behalf shall cause the reproach offered by him to cease; without his own reproach he shall cause it to turn upon him. Then he shall turn his face toward the fort of his own land: but he shall stumble and fall, and not be found."


"Then shall stand up in his [Julius Caesar] estate a raiser of taxes [Augustus Caesar] in the glory of the kingdom: but within few days he shall be destroyed, neither in anger, nor in battle." (Augustus died peaceably & not in battle]

Luke 2:1 "And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus, that all the world should be taxed."


"And in his [Augustus Caesar] estate shall stand up a vile person, [Tiberius Caesar] to whom they shall not give the honour of the kingdom: [The people of Rome did not like this eccentric, misunderstood, and unloved person] but he shall come in peaceably, [When Augustus died, Tiberius ascended to the throne peacefully] and obtain the kingdom by flatteries." [Tiberius was the only stepson of Augustus. His ascension owed much to the flatterings and manoeuvring of his mother, Livia]

Luke 3:1,2: "Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judaea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of Ituraea and of the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene, Annas and Caiaphas being the high priests, the word of God came unto John the son of Zacharias in the wilderness."


"And with the arms of a flood [military forces] shall they [enemies of Rome] be overflown from before him, [Tiberius led several successful military campaigns in Germany and in the East] and shall be broken; yea, also the prince of the covenant."


"And after the league made with him [in 161 B.C. the Jews entered a league with Rome] he shall work deceitfully: for he shall come up, and shall become strong with a small [little] people." [Here the “little horn” - Rome, began to become exceeding great. cf. Dan 8:9]


"He [Rome] shall enter peaceably even upon the fattest places of the province; and he shall do that which his fathers have not done, nor his fathers' fathers; he shall scatter among them the prey, and spoil, and riches: yea, and he shall forecast his devices against the strong holds, even for a time."

The usual manner in which nations had, before the days of Rome, entered upon valuable provinces and rich territory, was by war and conquest. Rome was now to do what had not been done by the fathers or the fathers' fathers; namely, receive these acquisitions through peaceful means. The custom, before unheard of, was now inaugurated, of kings' leaving by legacy their kingdoms to the Romans. Rome came into possession of large provinces in this manner. [Rome was diverse from previous kingdoms in that she reached a stage where she allowed her people to vote in their government becoming the first Republic. Rome also often conquered through diplomacy. She entered agreements with nations calling them ‘allies,’ but Rome was usually the benefactor];

The city of Rome would continue to be the seat of world government for 360 years. From when? The battle of Actium, 31 B.C., described in the next few verses, is apparently the starting point, for it was from that date that Rome gained absolute supremacy over all when it conquered Egypt. Accordingly the 360 years ran from 31 B.C. - A.D. 330. Did Rome cease to be the seat of government in A.D. 330? Yes. Emperor Constantine gave Rome up and moved his capital to Constantinople.

[After the death of Julius Caesar, Mark Antony sought to replace him. However Julius’ grandnephew and adopted heir, Octavius, won the popular support from Antony to himself. Bitter rivalry existed between them but they faked reconciliation. They divided the empire between themselves, Octavius took Italy and the west, Antony took Egypt and the east]


"And he [Octavius] shall stir up his power and his courage against the king of the south [Mark Antony / Cleopatra - Egypt] with a great army; and the king of the south shall be stirred up to battle with a very great and mighty army; but he shall not stand: for they shall forecast devices against him."

This is the final battle between the LITERAL kings of the North and South as Imperial Rome will undergo a metamorphosis to Papal Rome in verses 30-31. From verse 31 to 45 Papal Rome assumes the mantle of the spiritual King of the North just as we saw in Daniel 2 where the image begins with LITERAL BABYLON and ends with spiritual Babylon in the form of Papal Rome in the feet of Iron & clay.


"Yea, they that feed of the portion of his (Mark Antony) meat [the forces in the employ of Mark Antony] shall destroy him, [Cleopatra, Mark Antony’s mistress, fled the battle with 60 ships, Mark Antony followed. Upon seeing the fleet of Antony flee, Antony’s land army went over to Octavius], and his army shall overflow: [“be washed” (Vulgate, Syriac) or “swept away” (RSV)] and many shall fall down slain. [In 32 B.C. Mark Antony committed suicide. Cleopatra, finding that she could not ingratiate herself with Octavius, also committed suicide].

*KOTN = King of the North

**KOTS = King of the South


"And both these kings' hearts shall be to do mischief, and they shall speak lies at one table; [Referring to their previous faked reconciliation] but it shall not prosper: for yet the end shall be at the time appointed."


"Then shall he [Octavius who became Augustus Caesar] return into his land with great riches; [Octavius brought vast riches from Egypt to Rome. See Prideaux II, 380]

and his heart shall be against the holy covenant; [Under various leaders Rome warred against the plan of salvation] and he shall do exploits, and return to his own land.


"At the time appointed [A.D. 330, at the end of the 360 years] he shall return, and come toward the south; but it shall not be as the former, or as the latter. [In A.D. 330 Constantine shifted the capital from Rome to Constantinople in an effort to find a safer seat of government. Many take this as the signal for the downfall of the empire. With no strong ruler in the city of Rome the bishop of Rome (the Pope) rose in power].


"For the ships of Chittim [“A general term for all islanders of the Mediterranean SeaCoasts and Isles of the Mediterranean Sea” Strongs. cf. Num 24:24; Jer 2:10. Chittim was a source of ivory.] shall come against him: [The Vandals from Carthage on the Mediterranean coast of Africa attacked the Roman empire] therefore he [Rome] shall be grieved, and return, and have indignation against the holy covenant: so shall he do; he shall even return, and have intelligence with them that forsake the holy covenant. [Imperial Rome was weakening - she made overtures with the apostates in the 'Christian' church who were in the majority, i.e. "them that forsake the holy covenant". Imperial Rome was transitioning to Papal Rome as the subtle change from Pagan Rome to Christian Rome takes place here. There is no change in the pronouns but this is in keeping with Daniel 8, where one horn represents both Pagan & Papal Rome]. [Verse 31 repeats that which was described in Dan 8:11-12.]


  • Pagan Rome, the King of the North transitions to Papal Rome.

  • Papal Rome, King of the North. cf Legs of Iron => feet of iron & clay - Dan 2

  • The setting up of Papal Rome - vs 31

  • The 1260 years of persecution of Bible believing Christians by Papal Rome - vs 33 to 35


"And arms [military forces such as the Franks (French)] shall stand on his part, [Shall give their strength and support to Papal Rome] and they shall pollute the sanctuary of strength, and shall take away the daily sacrifice, and they shall place the abomination that maketh desolate."

“Arms” [Heb. zeroah] refers to military forces in Dan 11:15. The word “sacrifice” is not in the Hebrew. The word translated “daily” is elsewhere translated “continual.” “Take away” is from the Hebrew “suwr” and means “remove” while the thing removed still exists but not in its original setting. It is used as in putting off garments (Gen 38:14); removing a cover (Gen 8:13); a man turned aside from the commandments (Deut 17:20).

The word “sanctuary” is from the Hebrew “miqdash,” which can refer to pagan temples (Isa 16:12; Eze 28:18.) The word “strength” is from the Hebrew “maowz”, -repeatedly used to refer to the forts and fortresses, the leading cities, of pagan powers. (See Dan 11:7, 10, 19, 38, 39). The temple of Pagan Rome was polluted by the arms of Papal Rome.

“Rome” in the Greek New Testament is from the Greek “Rhome” and means “strength.”

“Arms” took away the “daily” (or continual) in order “to set up” the “abomination that maketh desolate” - Papal Rome (Dan 12:11 margin). In 2Thess Paul guardedly called the “daily” the “withholder,” that existed in his day and said that it would be “TAKEN OUT OF THE WAY” to reveal the “man of sin” - Papal Rome. What power existing in Paulʼs day withheld the rise of Papal Rome and had to be taken out of the way by military force of “arms” in order to reveal Papal Rome? The answer is the continual spirit of self-exaltation in Pagan Roman form. The “daily” thus represented the “continual” spirit of self-exaltation in its Pagan form which was taken away by military arms in order to set up the same spirit in its Papal form. Forces fighting on behalf of the Papacy took away or removed all anti-papal self exalting op- position while the Papacy took up (Heb. ruwm Dan 8:11) the same spirit.

The Franks (French), under their king Clovis, were the first barbarian nation of Europe to pledge their support to defend and establish the Catholic faith. Their military “arms” overthrew competing forms of self- exaltation, namely Paganism and Arianism and helped “place” (“set up” Dan 12:11 margin) the “abomination that maketh desolate” - the self-exalting church/state power known as the Papacy or Papal Rome.


*Verse 32

"And such as do wickedly against the covenant shall he corrupt by flatteries: but the people that do know their God shall be strong, and do [exploits]." The church apostates i.e. those that do wickedly against the covenant were corrupted by Rome but the faithful, those that knew their God continue to do exploits (witnesss of the Gospel) amid the persecutions of the day.

*Verse 33

"And they that understand among the people shall instruct many: yet they shall fall by the sword, and by flame, by captivity, and by spoil, [many] days."

Many faithful Christians were martyred by Papal Rome.

*Verse 34

"Now when they shall fall, they shall be holpen with a little help: but many shall cleave to them with flatteries."

The Protestant Reformation helped somewhat to ease the persecution.

*Verse 35

"And [some] of them of understanding shall fall, to try them, and to purge, and to make [them] white, [even] to the time of the end: because [it is] yet for a time appointed." The persecution continued "even to the time of the end"

*Apostate Papal leaders corrupted many, but the faithful, who knew God, witnessed at great peril to their lives; people such as the Waldenses, the Hugenots, the Albigenses and some Reformers like Wycliffe, Huss, Jerome, and Luther. Many of those whom Papal Rome could not corrupt she slew, burned, or imprisoned during the “many days” she held power (1260 “days” which symbolize 1260 years Eze 4:6; Num 14:34. The 1260 days, 42 months or 3 1/2 times is mentioned in Dan 7:25; 12:7; Rev 2:6, 14; 13:5).

The persecution of God's people continued to "the time of the end" hence a finite event. Something must have happened to the persecutor at the "time of the end" to cease the persecution. Verses 36 to 39 give us added details regarding Papal Rome. If we momentarily pause verses 36-39 and drop down to verse 40, we get the reason why the persecution of God's people ceased. Verse 40 commences with the "time of the end" when the King of the South pushes at the King of the North, delivering a deadly wound to the persecutor, thereby temporarily terminating attack on Bible believing Christians. More later when we get to verse 40.

The “many days” (verse 33) of Papal supremacy, (1260 years. See on Dan 7:25) were to reach to “the time of the end.”

As the Papal supremacy ended in 1798, “the time of the end” began in 1798.


“Berthier [The French general] entered Rome on the 10th of February 1798, and proclaimed a Republic...The aged Pontiff [Pope] refused to violate his oath by rec- ognizing it, and was hurried from prison to prison in France...he died...No wonder that half of Europe thought that with the Pope the papacy was dead.” J. Rickaby, The Modern Papacy, p1

Having brought us to “the time of the end” in verse 35, the prophecy goes back in time in verse 36 to add further identifying points for Papal Rome, bringing us back to the “time of the end” in verse 40 when Papal Rome, the King of the North is attacked by the King of the South resulting in its deadly wound (Rev 13:3).


"And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvellous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done."


As seen earlier "KING" and "KINGDOM" are used interchangeably in prophecy. (Daniel 2:37,38) In the Hebrew the definite article precedes the word ‘king.’ This would imply that the power brought to view in verse 36 has already been referred to in the previous verses, namely 30-35.

Rome is the power described in verses 30-35 and is the power here described in verse 36:

“The prophecy in the eleventh of Daniel has nearly reached its complete fulfillment. Much of the history that has taken place in fulfillment of this prophecy will be repeated. In the thirtieth verse A POWER is spoken of that "shall be grieved...And the king shall do according to his will. [verses 31-36, quoted.]” 13MR 394.

What power is spoken of in verses 30-36 inclusive? The power of papal Rome. Thus the king in verse 36 is Papal Rome. Some contend that the king of verse 36 is Napoleon or France but Napoleon / France was not mentioned in verses 30... to 35.


Exercises total control. “According to his will” is only used in reference to the successive world powers which had the power of life & death over God’s people. cf. Medo Persia Daniel 8:4; Grecia Daniel 11:3; Pagan Rome Daniel 11:16. After Pagan Rome the next power to have such supremacy was Papal Rome.

“... compromise between Paganism and Christianity resulted in the development of the "man of sin" foretold in prophecy as opposing and exalting himself above God. That gigantic system of false religion is a masterpiece of Satan's power - a monument of his efforts to seat himself upon the throne to rule the earth ACCORDING TO HIS WILL...Satan worked ACCORDING TO HIS WILL" Great Controversy p. 50, 51

QUES. Papal Rome was first introduced in Daniel 11:31. Why was it not then said to have done according to his will? ANS. The rise and actions of Greece under Alexander is described in the first part of Daniel 11:3, but his doing according to his will is mentioned in the latter part of verse 3. Pagan Rome, the robber of God's people, was introduced in Daniel 11:14 but his doing according to his will was not mentioned until verse 16. As these do not present a problem neither does Daniel 11:31-36


This power exalts itself above God by claiming to have changed God’s law. cf. Daniel 7:25


Papal Rome freely admits to changing the Lord's day, the Sabbath, from Saturday the seventh day of the week to Sunday the first day of the week. In reply to a letter of Oct. 2, 1895, asking if the Catholic Church claims that the change of the Sabbath to the first day is her mark, the following was received: “Of course the Catholic Church claims that the change was her act, and the act is a MARK of her ecclesiastical power and authority in religious matters.” Signed A.F. Thomas, Chancellor for the Cardinal.

“Sunday is our MARK of authority...The church is above the Bible and this transference of sabbath observance from Saturday to Sunday is proof of the fact.” Catholic record of London, Ontario, Canada, Sept. 1, 1928.

“The Catholic Church for over one thousand years before the existence of a protestant, by virtue of her divine mission, changed the day from Saturday to Sunday.” The Catholic Mirror, Sept 23 1893.

"Is not every Christian obliged to sanctify Sunday to abstain on that day from unnecessary servile work? Is not the observance of this law Among the most prominent of our sacred duties? But you may read the bible from genesis to revelation, and you will not find a single line here authorizing the sanctification of Sunday. The scriptures enforce the religious observance of Saturday, a day which we never sanctify.” Faith of our Fathers, by Cardinal Gibbons p.86

Above graphic from St Joseph's Catechism, Baltimore. USA.

“The prophetic declaration that the papacy was to oppose and exalt itself "above all that is called God, or that is worshipped," was strikingly fulfilled in the change of the Sabbath from the seventh to the first day of the week. Wherever the papal Sabbath is honored in preference to the Sabbath of the Lord, there is the man of sin exalted above the Creator of the heavens and the earth.  {BTS, February 1, 1913 par. 1} 

“The prophet Daniel declared that the Roman Church, symbolized by the little horn, was to think to change times and laws, [Daniel 7:25.] while Paul styled it the man of sin, [2Thessalonians 2:3, 4.] who was to exalt himself above God. Only by changing God's law could the papacy exalt itself above God; whoever should understandingly keep the law as thus changed would be giving supreme honor to that power by which the change was made. Such an act of obedience to papal laws would be a mark of allegiance to the pope in the place of God.”  {4SP 279.1}

Therefore, only one power in verse 36 fulfils the description of exalting itself above God: Papal Rome & its admission it changed the 7th day Sabbath from Saturday to Sunday.

France or Napoleon is NOT the King of verse 36, therefore, those who insist on France / Napoleon being the King of verse 36 and a triangular war in Daniel 11:40 go against inspired counsel! The King of verse 36, then, is a private interpretation in that narrative.


Compare this, line upon line, with:

- Daniel 7:8 – “…and, behold, in this horn [were] eyes like the eyes of man, and a mouth speaking great things.”

- And again in Daniel 7:25 - “And he shall speak [great] words against the most High,…”

- Repeated again in Revelation 13:5,6 – “And there was given unto him a mouth speaking great things and blasphemies; and power was given unto him to continue forty [and] two months. And he opened his mouth in blasphemy against God, to blaspheme his name, and his tabernacle, and them that dwell in heaven.”

Words against the Most High, Blasphemies, Blaspheme. The bible tells us what it means to Blaspheme:

"Then the Jews took up stones again to stone him. Jesus answered them, Many good works have I showed you from my Father; for which of those works do ye stone me? The Jews answered him, saying, For a good work we stone thee not; but for blasphemy; and because that thou, being a man, makest thyself God." John 10:31-33

"And, behold, they brought to him a man sick of the palsy, lying on a bed: and Jesus seeing their faith said unto the sick of the palsy; Son, be of good cheer; thy sins be forgiven thee. And, behold, certain of the scribes said within themselves, This [man] blasphemeth." Matthew 9:2,3

Therefore, to speak "marvellous things", "speaking great things" or to "blaspheme" is to claim to be God or to be able to forgive sin. Papal Rome in so doing is guilty of blasphemy and Blasphemy is one of the identifying points of the King of Daniel 11:36. Papal Rome is that King not Napoleon.


Papal Rome prospered and became influential. “ [the little horn] cast down the truth to the ground; and it practised, and prospered.” Daniel 8:12, 24.

Compare the harlot of Revelation 17:4 dripping with gold & jewels. “How much she [the whore of Revelation 17] hath glorified herself, and lived deliciously.” Rev 18:7


All that is determined in the investigative judgment of the little horn power shall be done [“until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolator [Rome].” Daniel 9:27. (margin)

After quoting verse 36 William Miller wrote: “The king here spoken of is the same as Daniel’s little horn, which came up among the ten horns. It is the same that blasphemed the God of heaven. It is mystical Babylon (Isa 14:2-15; Rev 13:5-6). The same Paul described in his epistle, 2Thess 2:19,” William Miller, Evidence from Scripture & Prophecy, p97-98].


"Neither shall he regard the God of his fathers, nor the desire of women, nor regard any god: for he shall magnify himself above all."


The apostles likened themselves to fathers of their converts (1 Cor 4:15; 3 John 4; Phil 1:10) Note: We are not to call any man our spiritual Father. Matt 23:9 By commanding unbiblical doctrines the Papacy shows that it does not regard the God of its ʻfathers.ʼ


In Isaiah 4:1 Christ is represented as the desire of women. Women symbolize churches (Jeremiah 6:2; 2Cor 11:2). In the end times many churches desire to be called by Christʼs name while doing what they want. Papal Rome has not regarded Christ, the desire of churches, in that Rome has done contrary to Christʼs word - the Bible cf John 8:31.

Incidentally marriage might also be called the desire of women, (Genesis 3:16) and this is also forbidden the Catholic clergy and the Nuns.

“Although celibacy is not expressly enforced by the Saviour...the [Catholic] Church felt it her duty to lay it down as a law.” The Faith of Our Fathers, James Cardinal Gibbons, (Roman Catholic) 1917 ed., p401.

In 1 Timothy 4:1-3 Paul foretold the papal practices of celibacy & compulsory abstinence from meat. - "Now the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils;Speaking lies in hypocrisy; having their conscience seared with a hot iron; Forbidding to marry, [and commanding] to abstain from meats, which God hath created to be received with thanksgiving of them which believe and know the truth."

“Catholics must practice self-denial on Fridays, either by abstinence from flesh or some other penance of their choosing...Special rules apply in Lent: fasting from food on Ash Wednesday and Good Friday...and compulsory abstinence from meat on all six Fridays...” Catholic Family Catechism, B.J.H. Tierney, p170

“The Pope’s forbidding matrimony, and to eat of meats created of God for man’s use, which is devilish doctrine by Paul’s prophecy...are tokens good enough that he is the right antichrist, and his doctrine is sprung of the devil.” Tyndale [1484-1536, First translator of the Bible from the Greek, Tyndale, An Answer to Sir Thomas More’s Dialogue, in Works, Vol. 3, p171]


This, the pope fulfilled by shewing himself that he is god.

“The Pope is not only the representative of Jesus Christ, but he is Jesus Christ Himself, hidden under veil of the flesh.” The Catholic National, July, 1895.

“The pope is crowned with a triple crown as king of heaven, and earth, and purgatory.” Ferraris' Promptta Bibliotheca, Vol. VI, p 26, article "Papa."

“What only God can do by his omnipotence, the priest can also do...Indeed it is not too much to say that in view of the sublimity of their office the priests are so many Gods.” Dignity and Duties of the Priest, Alphonsus De Liguori, p35.

“Does the Priest truly remit [forgive] sins, or does he only declare they are remitted? The priest does really and truly remit the sin in virtue of the power given him by Christ.” Joseph Deharbe, S.J., A Complete Catechism of the Catholic Religion, p275.

“The Pope is supreme judge of the law of the land...He is the viceregent of Christ, and is not only a priest forever, but is King of kings and Lord of lords.” La Civilta Cattolica, March 18, 1871.

“The Pope is of so great authority and power that he can modify, explain, or interpret even Divine laws...THE POPE CAN MODIFY DIVINE LAW, since his power is not of man, but of God, and he acts in the place of God upon earth.” Lucius Ferraris, “Papa,” art. 2, in Prompta Bibliotheca

"The pope has power to change times, to abrogate [change] laws, and to dispense [do away] with all things, even the precepts of Christ." Decretal, De Translantic Episcop

Papal Rome thus disregards: 1. God (the Father), by breaking His Law.

2. The Desire of women (the Son of God), by doing contrary to His teachings. 3. Any God (the Holy Spirit), by claiming to be the Vicar (representative) of Christ and the only infallible interpreter of Scripture, when the Holy Spirit is Christ invisibly represented and the only infallible Interpreter.

By showing himself that he is God, the King of the North magnifies himself above all.. He is “...that man of sin...Who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshipped; so that he as God sitteth in the temple of God, shewing himself that he is God.” 2 Thess 2:3-4.

The “temple” in which the man of sin would sit as God is the Christian church. The word temple in 2Thess 2:3-4 is “naos” and according to Strong’s means “metaph. the spiritual temple consisting of the saints of all ages joined together by and in Christ.” This definition is in harmony with Scripture: 1Cor 3:16 “Know ye not that ye are the TEMPLE [naos] of God, and [that] the Spirit of God dwelleth in you?”

The King of the North sits among Christians as the Spiritual leader of the Christian Church.


"But in his estate shall he honour the God of forces: and a god whom his fathers knew not shall he honour with gold, and silver, and with precious stones, and pleasant things."

Verse 37 said he regarded no God except himself. The God of forces must therefore be himself. The word “forces” in this verse is from the Hebrew “mauz” which means STRENGTH. The word “Rome‚“ in the New Testament is from the Greek “Rhome” and means “STRENGTH.” In the place of God, the Papacy worships the GOD OF FORCES - the GOD OF ROME, the Pope. The marginal reading of verse 38 says, “ for the Almighty God, IN HIS SEAT he shall honour yea, he shall honour A GOD, whom his fathers knew not.”

Paul called this power the “man of sin” “Who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshipped; so that he as God SITTETH IN THE TEMPLE OF GOD, shewing himself that he is God.”

The temple (Gr. naos) in which he would sit is the Christian church. See Eph 2:21-22 The most frequent translation of "ma‘uzzim" (plural) in the King James Bible is strength. In place of God, who draws by love, the Papal Rome honoured the god of strength or force using the civil powers to enforce compliance.


Papal Wealth.

Claiming to hold the keys to heaven or hell, Rome has had a captivating control over kings and nations. Revelation 17:4 speaks of the whore of Babylon who fornicates with the kings of the earth and is decked in GOLD, PRECIOUS STONES and PEARLS.


"Thus shall he do in the most strong holds with a strange god, whom he shall acknowledge [and] increase with glory: and he shall cause them to rule over many, and shall divide the land for gain."

- Papal Rome has gradually increased the place of Mary glorifying her to the level of a god. -

- She is venerated and bowed before which is sinful (Exo 20:5).

- She is prayed to

- She is called the mediator between God & man which is error (1Tim 2:5).

- She has become the dispenser of the graces of Christ which is error (1Cor 12:11).

- Rome claims Mary was immaculately conceived & free from sin which is error (Luke 1:47).

- She is considered co-redeemer with Christ!


Who is the “them”? The last plurality mentioned was "the most strongholds" - those who did Rome's bidding. The papacy arranged affairs such that those powers who supported the church were themselves upheld by the church. Those who resisted her became the subject of invasions sanctioned by Rome who promised much of the spoils to the invading forces.

Thus the succession of Popes increased in glory, wealth and power in the most strong holds, or leading cities of the nations.


Wealthy dioceses and archdioceses offered opportunity for personal gain and self-aggrandizement. These were obtained by those who promised to pay their Church superiors the most. The Papacy also helped settle territorial disputes between nations in such a way that the church benefitted. The merchandizing spirit in the church is mentioned in the 3rd seal of Rev 6:5-6. cf. Micah 3:11; Ezekiel 34.

Papal Rome divides anything for gain including material things, territories and even people. (Rev 18:12-13). Rome is to be punished for dividing God’s church through her erroneous theology. Joel 3:2

In return for annual tribute Papal Rome granted lands to various peoples. Henry II was granted permission by Pope Adrian IV to attack Ireland on the grounds that he would pay tribute to Rome. When bitter disputes broke out between Spain & Portugal over the rights to the New World, Pope Alexander VI in 1493 presumed to divide it between them.


"And at the time of the end shall the king of the south push at him: and the king of the north shall come against him like a whirlwind, with chariots, and with horsemen, and with many ships; and he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow and pass over."

  • The last time these two kings did battle was in verse 25

  • These were the literal Kings of the North and South.

  • Octavius' Rome versus Mark Antony & Cleopatra's Egypt.

  • Pagan Rome transitions to Papal Rome in verses 30-31.

  • With that transition Papal Rome assumes the title King of the North.

  • Literal Egypt transitions from the literal King of the South to a spiritual entity.

  • Egypt, the literal King of the South is now represented by Atheism in verse 40.

The titles, King of the North and South remain but the entities they represent have changed with the change from literal Rome (KOTN) to Spiritual Rome (new KOTN) and literal Egypt (KOTS) becomes spiritual Egypt in the form of Atheism (KOTS)


Here the narrative picks up where it left off at the end of verse 35, namely "the time of the end" which began in 1798. Daniel’s book was sealed till the time of the end (Dan 12:4). Note: Long before the time of the end began, with the transition from Pagan to Papal Rome, the glorious land, the kings of the north & south, etc. had ceased to refer to literal geographic locations but had become spiritual groups.

  • The glorious land = The church

  • The king of the North, Babylon = False religion

  • The king of the South, Egypt = Atheism or no religion

The true Christian Church, therefore, contends with the false religion of Babylon - Rev 17 (the King of the North) and no religion (Atheism, the King of the South).

In Daniel 11:30-35 the period of Papal supremacy is described as lasting “even to the time of the end.” As the Papal supremacy ended in 1798, when it received its deadly wound, the time of the end began in 1798. Who delivers the deadly wound? The King of the South.


The literal & local typifies the global & spiritual Literal localized things that affected literal Israel represent spiritual global events that affect the world-wide church. Israel was a miniature world in which God illustrated His way of dealing with sin. What happened to Israel are types, or figures, illustrating world-wide events in the experience of the church. (1Cor 10:6, 11; Rom 15:4).

While there is a change from literal to spiritual Israel, there is no change in the language. The Old Testament terms are kept but they refer to the Church worldwide and her enemies. (Matt 21:43; 1Pet 2:9; Rom 11:17-21; Gal 3:28-29. See Daniel 9).

In the same way the enemies of literal local Israel, such as Babylon to the north and Egypt to the South, are used to represent end-time global spiritual powers. The church (Jerusalem) stands between Babylon representing false religion and Atheism representing no religion.

What spiritual / global power does the King of the South represent in the end- time? What was the spirit of Egypt, the king of the south? Pharaoh, the original “king of the SOUTH,” defied and denied Godʼs existence, saying, “Who is Jehovah, that I should hearken unto His voice to let Israel go? I know not Jehovah, and moreover I will not let Israel go.” Exo 5:2, A.R.V.

This is ATHEISM, and the nation represented by Egypt would give voice to a similar denial of the claims of the living God and would manifest a like spirit of unbelief and defiance.” E.G. White, Great Controversy, 1911 ed., p269.

In the 1790s this God-denying spirit arose in France. During the Revolution, in 1793, “the world for the first time heard an assembly of men, born and educated in civilization, and assuming the right to govern one of the finest of the European nations, uplift their united voice to deny the most solemn truth which manʼs soul receives, and RENOUNCE UNANIMOUSLY THE BELIEF AND WORSHIP OF DEITY.” Sir Walter Scott, Life of Napoleon, Vol. I, ch. 17

“France stands apart in the worldʼs history as the single state which, by the decree of her Legislative Assembly, pronounced THERE WAS NO GOD, and of which the entire population of the capital, and a vast majority elsewhere, women as well as men, danced and sang with joy in accepting the announcement.” Blackwoodʼs Magazine, Nov, 1870.

In France the Bible was banned and France plunged into the most bloody and licentious scenes ever seen in Europe, known as the Reign of Terror. The rise of atheism in France was the fruit of years of Papal influence. By following Papal policy and crushing out the Reformation, France destroyed liberty and reforms that would have blessed the nation. Rome had misrepresented the character of God, and the people of France, thinking that Romanism was Christianity, rejected both the Bible and its Author. Men like Voltaire spread their infidelity everywhere. The masses, long trampled on by Rome, rose up against the oppressor with fury. The guillotine was set up on the very spot where Rome had set up the first stake for the Reformers. In rejecting Roman Catholicism as a deception, the French were led by Satan to regard all religion as a deception.

The Great Controversy referring to Atheistic France as the power called “spiritually... Sodom and EGYPT [king of the south],” (Rev 11:8) says “This is ATHEISM, and the nation represented by EGYPT would give voice to a similar denial of the claims of the living God, and would manifest a like spirit of unbelief and defiance [Exo 5:2].” GC 269. i.e. the spirit of Egypt, the king of the south was a denial of God’s existence, hence Atheism. Spiritually, the King of the South is Atheism.

The God-defying and denying spirit of Pharaoh was manifest in the atheistic Revolution of France.

Verse 40 - In 1798 the King of the South, [Atheistic France] attacked the KON, Papal Rome.

In 1798, as predicted at the very beginning of the time of the end, the atheistic French, seeing the Pope as an obstacle in their efforts to rule Europe, attacked (“pushed” cf. Daniel 8:4) the Papal State, abolishing it; giving it a deadly wound (cf. Rev 13).

“Berthier [French general] entered Rome on 10th February 1798, and proclaimed a Republic...No wonder that half Europe thought... that with the Pope the papacy was DEAD” Lectures on the History of Religions, Vol. 3, lec. 24, p1. J. Rickaby or The Modern papacy, J. Rickaby (a Jesuit) p9.

“The PAPACY was EXTINCT: not a vestige of its existence remained; and among all the Roman Catholic powers not a finger was stirred in its defense. The Eternal City had no longer prince or pontiff; its bishop was dying in foreign lands; and the decree was already announced that no successor would be allowed in his place.” C. Trevor, Rome and Its Papal Rulers, p440.

The “king of the south” is hereafter used to refer to the God-defying Atheistic power. Following France, the Communist state became atheism’s most powerful supporter. The French Revolution was the birthplace of atheistic Communism (See on Rev 11). Conflicts have continued as atheistic states and ideologies have continued to press back Roman Catholicism. 

“The COMMUNIST movement would never have taken form as it did except for the prior occurrence of the FRENCH REVOLUTION.” Palmer, Revolution, p11-12

“The connection between the absolutist REVOLUTION OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY and the MARXIST MOVEMENT of the next century presses for recognition... [It] is THE DIRECT OFFSPRING and heir...A RELIGION OF ATHEISM… coupling scientific ideas with the greatest political hopes that man has ever entertained, the absolute hopes that animated the FRENCH REVOLUTION.”  The Dignity of Man, R. W. Davenport, p163-9.

Note: There has been an attempt to introduce a third power, France, in verses 36-39  resulting in a "triangular war" in verse 40 but there is no evidence whatsoever in the text itself to sustain such an interpretation. Whenever the King of the North or South are spoken of it is in connection with each other and not a third party. In this case the King of the South is said to "push" at him. The "him" correctly interpreted means "the king of the North" and later in the verse, "the king of the South" as they resume their battles in verse 40 except in this instance, both kings have taken on new identities, Papalism and Atheism.

Here is the interpretation which is in keeping with the rest of Daniel 11 when it speaks of the battles between these two powers which continue to this day. 

Daniel 11:40 And at the time of the end shall the king of the south push at him: (the King of the North) and the king of the north shall come against him (the King of the South) like a whirlwind, with chariots, and with horsemen, and with many ships; and he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow and pass over.

When Rome conquered the northern kingdom, (v 16) it became the king of the north and when Rome transitioned to Papal Rome, (vs 30-31) the latter assumed the same title. The literal king of the South was Egypt but we are told that the king of the South in verse 40 attacks, the king of the North, Papal Rome, in the time of the end (1798). "Egypt" represented the Atheism of Pharaoh. Pharaoh was noted for his defiance of God and rejection of His existence. The spirit of Atheism (the new spiritual King of the South) was manifested in revolutionary France which attacked the Papacy in "the time of the end", 1798.  John in the book of Revelation 11:7,8 describes revolutionary France as "spiritually Egypt" [Atheism] - "And their dead bodies shall lie in the street of the great city, which spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt, where also our Lord was crucified."

Therefore around 1798, at the beginning of the time of the end,  we see the spiritual king of the north (Papal Rome) being pushed at (attacked) by the spiritual king of the south, Atheism, manifested in revolutionary France, abolishing the Papal government and taking the Pope prisoner.

This event in Daniel 11:40 was a remarkable prediction of events described in Revelation 13:3 when the Papal head of the beast of Revelation 13:1-10 received its deadly wound. This was accurately fulfilled in 1798 as prophesied by Daniel when the King of the South, Atheistic France, delivered the deadly blow to the Papacy. See The Beast

Atheistic France pushes at Papal Rome, the King of the North  in the "Time of the End"

verse 40  ...and the king of the north shall come against him like a whirlwind.

Who is the King of the North?

The king of the north is the last power in Daniel 11. Based on the principle that the prophecies in Daniel repeat and enlarge on the earlier prophecies and as demonstrated above, the last earthly power in Daniel 11 is Rome:

Last earthly power in Daniel 2 is Rome, the feet of Iron & clay

Last earthly power in Daniel 7 is Rome, the little horn

Last earthly power in Daniel 8-9 is Rome, the little horn

Last earthly power in Daniel 10-12 is Rome, the King of the North.

Just as the “king of the SOUTH” refers to the Atheistic State, the “king of the NORTH” refers to the Apostate Christian State. This same power is called Babylon in the book of Revelation. Literal Babylon was literal Israel’s NORTHERN enemy. (Jeremiah 1:14; 4:5-7; 6:1; 10:22; 13:20; 16:15; 23:8; 25:9, 12). 

As literal Israel suffered at the hands of Babylon in the NORTH and Egypt in the SOUTH, so today the true church suffers at the hands of Apostate Christianity (which spiritually is Babylon in the NORTH) and Atheism (which spiritually is Egypt in the SOUTH).

These two systems are quite similar:

One is anti-christ (in place of true Christ) the other is anti-god. 

Catholicism breeds Atheism. (eg. the French Revolution. See on Revelation 11 - to be posted). 

Atheism breeds Catholicism. 

Many countries where Catholicism is strong become atheistic communists. Today as a backlash to atheism, Christians are attempting to gain political power. The papal system is on the rise. 

The deadly wound the Papal Rome suffered in 1798 is slowly healing. The Lateran Treaty in 1929 restored to the Papacy the Vatican State.

Headlines read: “Mussolini and Gaspari Sign Historic Pact...HEAL WOUND of Many Years...” San Francisco Chronicle, Feb. 12, 1929.  

The last part of verse 40 describes how the “king of the NORTH,” the Christian State, counter-attacks the king of the SOUTH, the Atheistic State.  Papal Rome's counterattack occurred in the late 1980s and early 1990s. By this time the most powerful supporter of Atheism was Soviet Communism - a party pledged to Atheism. The rest is prophetic history in the process of being fulfilled - the Soviet union and its satellite states are gone. Atheistic Communist Poland and others have fallen. The King of the North (Papal Rome) has certainly taken out a large block of the King of the South (Atheism) and it hasn't finished yet. China and North Korea will also fall in one way or another so that Revelation 13:3 might be fulfilled "and all the world wondered after the Beast". 


verse 40 The Christian State attacks the Atheistic State like a whirlwind, with chariots, and with horsemen, and with many ships...

Ships = ECONOMIC or TRADING power (Ps 107:23; Rev 18:17, 19; Eze 27:24, 25)

Chariots & horsemen = MILITARY power.

Whirlwind = FAST (Amos 1:14; Jer 4:13). This language is borrowed from a description of literal Babylon, “his chariots shall be as a whirlwind: his horses are swifter than eagles...” (Jer 4:13). Literal Babylon was a type of the end-time king of the north.

Atheistic Russia’s collapse was so fast that it stunned the world. It was as prophecy had foretold, “like a whirlwind.” Newsweek magazine unconsciously used the very words of prophecy when it entitled its article on the collapse of Atheistic Communism: “DAYS OF THE WHIRLWIND.” Newsweek, Dec. 25, 1989.

“Nobody believed the collapse of communism would happen this FAST.” Time, Feb. 24, 1992.

The Papacy formed an alliance with the USA and is using ECONOMIC and MILITARY pressure to overthrow the atheistic Communist State.

Time magazine, 1992, describing the collapse of the Soviet Union, was entitled: “HOLY ALLIANCE: How Reagan and the Pope conspired to assist Poland’s Solidarity movement and hasten the demise of Communism.”

The Bible prophesied that the ships (ECONOMICS) and chariots and horsemen (MILITARY FORCE) would be used to overthrow the king of the south. Time magazine described how these exact things (ECONOMIC and MILITARY POWER) were used to overthrow the atheistic State:

“This was one of the great secret alliances of all time...he [Reagan] saw the collapse [of Communism] coming and he PUSHED it - hard.’

During the first half of 1982, a five part strategy emerged that was aimed  at bringing about the collapse of the Soviet ECONOMY...

1. The U.S. defense buildup already under way, aimed at making it too costly for the Soviets to compete MILITARILY with the U.S.  Reagan’s Strategic Defense Initiative - Star Wars - became a centerpiece of the strategy...

2. FINANCIAL AID to Warsaw Pact nations calibrated to their willingness to protect human rights and undertake free-market reforms. 

3. ECONOMIC isolation of the Soviet Union and withholding of Western and Japanese technology from Moscow. The Administration focused on denying the U.S.S.R. what it had hoped would be its principle source of hard currency in the 21st century: profits from a transcontinental pipeline to supply natural gas to Western Europe.” Time, Feb. 24, 1992.

Time magazine called this event “...the 20th century’s most dramatic SPIRITUAL WAR, a conflict in which the seemingly irresistible force of COMMUNISM battered against the immovable object of CHRISTIANITY.”Time, Dec. 4, 1989.

The language of the reporter is so similar to the language of the prophet, we stand amazed!

“Gorby’s bow to the Roman legions.” Title in the U.S. News & World Report.

The Sunday Oregonian ran an article entitled, “The Power of a Prophet: Pope John Paul II, with extraordinary insight into the present, has become more influential than any world leader.” 

A subheading read: “Bringing down Communism.” and went on to say:  “This is a man with an aura. He shapes history. His words and prayers cut like knives into the heart of Karl Marx’s GODLESS philosophy. With no army he did what tanks could not, destroy the Evil Empire. Mikhail Gorbachev, the former Soviet leader, said as much when he wrote, ‘Everything that has happened in Eastern Europe in these last few years would have been impossible without the presence of the pope and without the important role that he played on the world stage.”  The Sunday Oregonian, October 15, 1995. 

Verse 40 he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow and pass over.

The language of “overflowing and passing over,” appears to be borrowed from the Assyrian army marching south to overflow Egypt. 

“Now therefore, behold, the Lord bringeth up upon them the waters of the river, strong and many, even the king of Assyria, and all his glory: and he shall come up over all his channels, and go over all his banks: And he shall pass through Judah; he shall overflow and go over...” (Isa 8:7-8). 

This overflowing and passing over speaks of invasion and domination. The Apostate Christian State is to dominate world affairs. The countries he would overflow may be thought of as ideologies, just as the countries of the north and south represent ideologies not literal geographic areas.

In a literal sense we read of:

“The Triumph Of John Paul II-The TIDE of freedom WASHING OVER EASTERN EUROPE answers his most fervent prayer.” Life, Dec. 1989.

“While Gorbachev’s hands-off policy was the immediate cause of the chain reaction of liberty that has SWEPT THROUGH EASTERN EUROPE in the past few months, John Paul deserves much of the longer range credit.” Time, Dec. 4, 1989.

“...In the spacious ceremonial library of the 16th century Apostolic Palace, the CZAR of WORLD ATHEISM, Mikhail Gorbachev, will visit the Vicar of Christ, Pope John Paul II...The moment will be electric, not only because John Paul helped inflame the fervor for freedom in his Polish homeland that SWEPT like bush fire across Eastern Europe. Beyond that, the meeting of the two men symbolizes the end of the 20th century’s most dramatic SPIRITUAL WAR, a conflict in which the seemingly irresistible force of COMMUNISM battered against the immovable object of CHRISTIANITY.” Time, Dec. 4, 1989.

Verse 41 He shall enter also into the glorious land, and many [countries] shall be overthrown: but these shall escape out of his hand, [even] Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon.


Continuing the thought of the king of the north overflowing and passing over as an invasion and domination of ideologies he will also enter into the glorious land.

Papalism enters God’s Church.

Besides the US / Papal alliance in verse 40, he would ALSO enter into the Glorious land.

The language of this chapter is taken from the literal geographic world of God's Old Testament people -

  • King of the North (Babylon)

  • King of the South (Egypt)

  • Edom

  • Moab

  • Ammon

  • Ethiopia

  • Land of Egypt

  • Glorious land.

As the land of the north and the land south are ideologies so consistency indicates that the Glorious land is an ideology. It  would be inconsistent to make the Glorious land a literal place while the other lands mentioned are taken to be ideologies.

The places and names are borrowed from the geographic world of literal Israel but refer symbolically to global entities. 

As the The glorious land, mentioned earlier in the chapter, was the home of literal Israel, so the end-time glorious land would be the church - the home of spiritual Israel. This land is no single geographic location, continent or literal country but a global entity in the same way that the King of the North and South are global entities.

Similarities in the book of Revelation

In a similar way Babylon, a literal city of the Old Testament and enemy of Israel, represents a GLOBAL system and main enemy of the end time Israel (the true Christian Church) - Revelation 13,14,17,18.


The USA figures in Daniel 11:40

"…and the King of the North (the Papacy) shall come against him (the King of the South - atheistic state) like a whirlwind, (rapidly) with chariots and horsemen (military power), and with many ships (economic power)…"

The military and economic power were made available to the Papacy through an alliance with the USA. Here in verse 40 is described the alliance of the Papacy and the USA. As Clovis had given his military host to the Papacy to take away all contending opposition for the first Papal ascendancy, so the USA is giving it's support to the Papacy to take away all contending opposition to the second Papal ascendancy (here, the atheistic contenders).

verse 41 however speaks of something else. It says, "He shall ALSO (that is besides what has been described, beside the US / Papal alliance of v 40), He shall ALSO enter into the glorious land, and many shall be overthrown.

Call out of Babylon into God's church

The call today is for God’s people to come out of Babylon - the King of the North. Where are they to go? To the Glorious land (the Home of God’s people). Atheists in the Kingdom of the South, may also come. God’s remnant church (those who keep all tern commandments of the Law of God including the 7th day Sabbath) is not North America, and there is no call for them to come out of Babylon (Kingdom of the North) and come into AMERICA (the glorious land). The call is to come out of Babylon (the land of the north) into the Glorious land (God's remnant church)!

New Testament Similarity

1. In the New Testament we read of Babylon (Rev 14:8 - the King of the North),

2. Atheistic State (Rev 11: 8 - Egypt, the King of the South),

3. The Jews (Rev 2:9 - God's faithful Christian church),

4. The Holy city (Rev 11:2 - God's holy people),

5. A call to come out of Babylon (Rev 14 - evidently to return to "Israel", God's true people),

6. Israel (Rom 9:6 - God's faithful Christian people).

These references to Israel, the Jews, the holy city etc. refer to God's church not to the USA or any other literal local area.

Prophetic Parallel

“Glorious,”  Hebrew, tsebee is translated “pleasant” in Daniel 8:9 where it referred to literal Israel which Pagan Rome captured. To what does literal Israel answer today? God’s remnant Church. 

PAGAN Rome entered the LITERAL “glorious land” of Palestine (Daniel 11:16).

PAPAL Rome enters the global / SPIRITUAL “glorious land” - the true end-time church.

“Land” need not refer to physical territory. It often represents peoples (See Lev 18:3; Hos 1:2; Joel 2:18-21; Amos 8:8). 

This idea may be unpalatable, and there may be a desire on the part of those faithful to the remnant church to deny this, but where does the evidence, consistency, and context, point? 

What erroneous aspects of Papal Rome are entering into God’s church?

The list includes:

1. Erroneous views of God.

2. The erroneous definitions of sin as being more than the transgression of God’s law.

3. The idea that Christ took a human nature that was not identical to our own.

4. An unbiblical view of salvation in which Christ cannot keep us from sinning.

5. A hierarchical system of church governance.

6. Erroneous futuristic interpretations of prophecy.

7. The reinterpretation of the historical time prophecies as literal days and views which are beginning to cloud the identify of the true antichrist of Bible prophecy.

The truth is still being proclaimed by faithful members within God’s remnant church but the devil is wrath because he knows that he has a short time and is working hard to deceive, sow error, discontent, uncertainty and an un-Christlike spirit.

Many shall be ovethrown

The word “countries” is not in the Hebrew text. Through Catholic influence and theology MANY in God’s church are, and will be, overthrown. Prophecy foretells that Papal Rome will head all end-time global religions.

“As the storm approaches, a large class who have professed faith in the third angel’s message, but have not been sanctified through obedience to the truth, abandon their position and join the ranks of the opposition.” E.G. White, Great Controversy, 1911 ed., p608.

Glorious land and Glorious Holy mountain

Just prior to Christ’s return, because of the purification which results from persecution, the sinners in Zion will be shaken out and the church will change from the “GLORIOUS LAND” (v 41) into the “GLORIOUS HOLY MOUNTAIN”(v 45). 

Christ will present the church to Himself as “a GLORIOUS church...HOLY and without blemish.” Eph 5:23. cf. Isa 66:20; Joel 2:1; Zech 8:3; Isa 11:9.

Verse 41 ...but these shall escape out of his hand, [even] Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon.

These peoples were not in the glorious land but escape from the control of the king of the north INTO the glorious land. ​

As literal Edom, Moab & Ammon no longer exist, this confirms that the countries and lands in the latter parts of Daniel 11 have a spiritual application. These three peoples were related to Israel. Edom were the descendants of Esau. The whoredoms Israel committed with the Moabites (Num 25:1-3) typifies the ecumenical apostasy that some in God’s end-time church are entering into with the fallen churches of Babylon. ​

Moab and Ammon were Lot’s sons through his daughters incestuous relations with their father (Gen 19:36-38). Moab and Ammon escaped the destruction of Sodom in their Father, so to speak (cf. Heb 7:9-10). These of Moab and Ammon represent the remnant of God’s people in the various denominations who escape the end-time destruction by coming out and joining the true people of God. (cf. Rev 18:4).

“The Lord shall set his hand again the second time to recover the remnant of His people...they shall lay their hand upon EDOM and MOAB; and the chief of the children of AMMON shall obey them.” Isa 11:11-16.

This is being fulfilled in the call to come out of Babylon:

“September 23, the Lord showed me that He had stretched out His hand the second time to recover the remnant of His people [this is drawn from Isa 11:11-16 quoted above], and that efforts must be doubled in this gathering time.” E.G. White, Early Writings, p74. (Bracketed comment supplied).

“Company after company from the Lord’s army joined the foe and tribe after tribe [Edom, Moab and Ammon?] from the ranks of the enemy united with the commandment keeping people of God.” E.G. White, Testimonies to the Church, Vol. 8, p41. (Bracketed comment supplied).

Amos 9:11-12 compared with Acts 15:16, 17 shows that Edom and the heathen which follow God, represent “the residue of men.”

When enlightened with the truth and the call to “come out of her my people,” multitudes of God’s people presently in Babylon will separate from the fallen churches and unite themselves with the remnant. (Amos 9:9-13; Isa 56:6-8; Jer 40:11-12). 

“I saw that this message will close with power and strength far exceeding the midnight cry. Servants of God, endowed with power from on high with their faces lighted up, and shining with holy consecration, went forth to proclaim the message from heaven. Souls that were scattered all through the religious bodies answered to the call, and the precious were hurried out of the doomed churches, as Lot [Moab & Ammon being yet in Lot’s loins] was hurried out of Sodom before her destruction.” E.G. White, Early Writings, p278-279. Bracketed comment supplied.

Verse 42: He shall stretch forth his hand also upon the countries: and the land of Egypt shall not escape.

 "He", the King of the North, shall stretch forth his hand i.e. have power over (see 1Samuel 26:8,9) Egypt, [the literal local King of the South] which as noted above is symbolic of Atheism embedded in Communism. 


Atheistic states worldwide will yield to the religious requirements of the Christian nations. All the world is to worship the beast (Rev 13:8). Forms of religion will continue but all except those who keep the commandments of God (Rev 14:12) will receive the mark of the beast. We can expect communist China to open its borders to ‘Christianity’ either through economic and or military influences.

The cover of Time magazine, June 19, 1989, said, “Revolt against Communism - China, Poland, USSR.”

The article caption said: “Defiance rocks the Communist world. China resists while Moscow and Warsaw struggle to reform.” The article itself said, “It has been a given among experts for some time that part of the challenge to the U.S. and its allies is to bring GLOBAL COMMUNISM in its decline to a soft landing rather than let it crash and burn....Ronald Reagan spoke of Marxism as ʻinherently unstableʼ and doomed. But in the policies that went with this confident rhetoric, he, like his predecessors, concentrated on the task of matching Communismʼs strength and deterring its expansion, not on the more subtle and relevant dilemma of coping with the consequences of its weakness, decay and retrenchment. George Bush seems to see the problem clearly. He has said that the industrialized democracies, led by the U.S., should move ʻbeyond containmentʼ and ʻintegrate the Soviet Union into the world order.ʼ” In the New York Post Jackson Martindell, the president of the American Institute of Management, was quoted as saying: “Either Communism will rule the world or

the Catholics will prevent it.” New York Post, Aug. 22, 1962.

The Catholics, allied with the apostate Protestant US, will prevent it! Catholicism in the old world (Europe) and Protestantism in the new (USA) will bring Communism with its Atheistic King of the South under its control.


Here is a prophesied that the King of the North will gain ECONOMIC CONTROL, i.e. “power over the treasures of gold and of silver” so that no one will be able to buy or sell without the mark of the beast. See Rev 13:16-17. World financial control will be in the hands of the Papal headed one world government.

Who will give the Papacy financial power over the nations?

“And he had POWER to give life unto the image of the beast, that the image of the beast should both speak, and cause that as many as would not worship the image of the beast should be killed. And he causeth all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond, to receive a mark in their right hand, or in their foreheads: And that no man might BUY SELL, save he that had the mark, or the name of the beast, or the number of his name.” Rev 13:15-17.

The Apostate Protestant United States will have the power to enforce the Papal laws.

The Papal power united to the 'Protestant' U.S. will control the peoples right to buy and sell.

The 3rd angel's message shows that the two major powers in the last moments of earth's history will be the image of the beast and the beast existing together. (Rev 14:9-11)

“Those who are loyal to God will see every earthly support cut off.” Desire of Ages, p121

Ques. Could the treasures of gold & silver represent God’s people?

Ans. At times gold & silver treasures represent the people of God but this is not the case here because:

(a) In the latter part of Dan 11 kingdoms & places represent peoples. Inanimate objects possessed by the peoples do not.

(b) In Daniel 11:42 peoples who escape the clutches of the king of the north represent God’s people who come out of their erroneous systems of belief. It is unlikely that the next verse (Dan 11:43) would repreent the people of God under the symbol of inanimate objects.

and over all the precious things of Egypt [Literal Egypt was spoiled by the literal King of the North in the past as seen in Ezekiel 29-30...

"Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD; Behold, I will give the land of EGYPT unto Nebuchadrezzar king of BABYLON; and he shall take her multitude, and TAKE HER SPOIL, and take her prey; and it shall be the wages for his army." Eze 29:19.

Notice how Scripture describes Egypt’s fall:

“And I will strengthen the arms of the king of Babylon, and put my sword in his hand: but I will break Pharaoh's arms, and he shall groan before him with THE GROANINGS OF A DEADLY WOUNDED MAN.” Eze 30:24

Atheism (EGYPT), the symbolic King of the South in the form of France inflicted the papacy a deadly wound in 1798. Atheism will however be defeated and receive a DEADLY WOUND itself from the hands of the Papal forces. In other words, COMMUNISM with its embedded Atheism will fall to the Papal forces.

“...the Libyans and the Ethiopians [shall be] at his steps.”

To be at someoneʼs steps is to be a follower of that person (Ps 37:23; Job 23:11; Exo 11:8 margin; 1Kings 20:10 margin; 1Pet 2:21-22). These peoples are symbolic of those who support the King of the North (Papal Rome).

“The steps of a [good] man are ordered by the LORD: and he delighteth in his way.” Ps 37:23

“My foot hath held his steps, his way have I kept, and not declined.” Job 23:11

“Get thee out and all the people that follow thee (margin that is at thy feet).” Exo 11:8

“all the people that follow me. (margin are at my feet)” 1Kings 20:10

Christ's people “follow His steps, who did no sin” 1 Pet 2:21, 22

Conclusion: To be at someones steps means to be a follower of theirs, either obeying them or imitating them. The libyans & Ethiopians are symbolically the deceived followers of Papal Rome.


The gospel tidings come out of the east.

God's people who have been giving the three angels messages of Revelation 14 will arise to give the Loud Cry of Revelation 18:1-4, the gospel “TIDINGS.” (Isa 52:7; Isa 61:1). Read Isaiah 59:19-60:3.

Out of the East and North.

That these tidings symbolically come from the East and North shows them to be messages from God:

(a) The heralds of Christʼs first Advent came from the East (Matt 2:1).

(b) The angel having the seal of God is said to come from the East Rev 7:2.

As the seal of God does not come from the literal east, the points of the compass are not to be understood literally.

(c) God came from the North in Eze 1:4.

(d) Cyrus, who was a type or forerunner of Christ came from the East & the North (Isa 41:2, 25; 46:11; Jer 50:3, 9). He dried up the literal Euphrates River, conquered literal Babylon, and delivered Godʼs people. What Cyrus did to literal Babylon, Christ will do to spiritual Babylon.

(e) One day men will seek Godʼs Word but it will be too late. They are presented as looking for the WORD in the north & east, the very places from which it is represented as having

come. (Amos 8:11-12). See also Matt 24:27.

Tidings trouble the King of the North and therefore he shall go forth with great fury to destroy, and utterly to make away many.

The faithful will give the gospel, calling souls out of Babylon, and calling men to keep Godʼs commandments instead of the mark of the beast (Rev 14:6-12). This will infuriate the King of the North (alias the beast, Papal Rome) who will go forth with great fury to destroy the faithful (cf. Matt 2:1-13). “

“The two armies will stand distinct and separate, and this distinction will be so marked that many who shall be convinced of the truth will come on the side of Godʼs

commandment-keeping people. When this grand work is to take place in the battle, prior to the last closing conflict, many will be imprisoned, many will flee for their lives from cities and towns, and many will be martyrs for Christʼs sake in standing in defense of the truth...You will not be tempted above what you are able to bear. Jesus bore all this and far more. . . .” E.G. White, Selected Messages, Vol. 3, p397-398.

Finally a universal Death Decree will be passed on all those who keep the commandments of God instead of the mark of the beast. (Revelation 7:2; 13:15).


Tabernacles suggest worship and a palace is the headquarters of a kingdom. This, therefore, speaks of worship defined by a kingdom, a union of church and state, enforcing worship as defined by the state.


A tabernacle is a tent and suggests transience.

The Tabernacle of God was a mobile place of worship.

A palace is the seat of a kingdom or state.

As the tabernacle of Moses made was “after the pattern” or in the image of God’s temple in heaven (Exo 28:8-9; Heb 9:1-3), so the tabernacles of the papal system are copies or images of the papal system - unions of church & state - images of the beast spoken of collectively as the image of the beast. This image of the beast (Rev 13:15) having taken up the same antichrist spirit as papal Rome will enforce the papal law including Sunday worship in place of God’s Sabbath.


Note that “Tabernacles” is plural.

“So when the irrevocable decision of the sanctuary has been pronounced and the destiny of the world has been forever fixed, the inhabitants of the earth will know it not. The FORMS [plural] of religion will be continued by a people from whom the Spirit of God has been finally withdrawn...As the Sabbath has become the special point of controversy throughout Christendom, and religious and secular authorities have combined to enforce the observance of the Sunday, the persistent refusal of a small minority to yield to the popular demand will make them objects of universal execration. It will be urged that the few who stand in opposition to an institution of the church and a law of the state ought not to be tolerated; that it is better for them to suffer than for whole nations to be thrown into confusion and lawlessness. The same argument eighteen hundred years ago was brought against Christ by the "rulers of the people." "It is expedient for us," said the wily Caiaphas, "that one man should die for the people, and that the whole nation perish not." John 11:50. This argument will appear conclusive; and a decree will finally be issued against those who hallow the Sabbath of the fourth commandment, denouncing them as deserving of the severest punishment and giving the people liberty, after a certain time, to put them to death. Romanism in the Old World and apostate Protestantism in the New will pursue a similar course toward those who honor all the divine precepts. The people of God will then be plunged into those scenes of affliction and distress described by the prophet as the time of Jacob's trouble.” Great Controversy, p615-616.

Note that Dan 11:45 is followed directly by Daniel 12:1 which states, “At that time...there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation...” This is the time of Jacob’s trouble.

between the seas

Waters represent peoples (Rev 17:15). Israel’s territory was to be between two rivers & two seas (Gen 15:18). Between the Euphrates in the North, the river of Egypt in the south, the Mediterranean Sea to the West and the Dead Sea to the East. "Between the seas" thus represents the place of God’s people, the glorious land.

in the glorious holy mountain


“Holy mountain” refers to the dwelling place of God (Ps 87:1; Isa 11:9; 56:7; Joel 3:17; Eph 2:21).

The holy mountain is called Jerusalem in Dan 9:16,“...thy city Jerusalem, thy holy mountain...”

God’s presence alone makes a thing holy. At the end of the 70 weeks literal Israel was cut off. (See Dan 9 study). Literal Jerusalem is no longer holy and cannot be the glorious holy mountain:

“Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people AND upon thy holy city...” Dan 9:24. Through the failure to comply with the conditions God gave the Jews and Jerusalem were rejected as the people and the city of God at the expiration of that period.

God now dwells in his church (1Cor 3:17; 2Cor 6:16; Eph 2:21) which are an “holy holy nation.” (1Pet 2:5-9) God’s holy mountain.

A clear principle in Bible prophecy is that things which were LOCAL tyified things which are GLOBAL. The names remain but that which they refer to is of GLOBAL extent:

LOCAL Babylon GLOBAL Babylon (false religion world-wide)

LOCAL Israel GLOBAL Israel (the church)

LOCAL Jews GLOBAL Jews (the faithful)

LOCAL sanctuary GLOBAL Sanctuary (Christ’s heavenly sanctuary is for all mankind)

The glorious holy mountain represents God’s purified church worldwide, (Zech 8:3; Eph 5:27).

Jesus said that the “abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet” would “stand in the holy place.” Matt 24:15. In its first application this verse in Matt referred to the Roman Armies surrounding Jerusalem in A.D. 66. In its second application it refers to the Papal forces threatening God’s people with death.

“In the fate of Jerusalem He beheld the destruction of the world.” COL 302.


The glorious holy mountain into which God’s people are said to be gathered and around which the wicked are presented as gathering is, "Armageddon"

Strong's Concordance tells us “Armageddon” is made up of two Hebrew words.

Har” a shortened form of the Hebrew word for “MOUNTAIN,” and “Meggido” “A PLACE OF CROWDS [ASSEMBLY, CONGREGATION].”

The word “Megiddo” comes from the Hebrew word “gaw-dad'” which means to cut, gather together, assemble by troop, gather.


Read Isa 11:11-14. Satan wished to sit in the mountain of the congregation as the god of the congregation (Isa 14:13-15).

The word “mountain” in “The Glorious holy mountain” of Dan 11:45 is from the exact same word "Har" which makes up the first part of the word “Armageddon.” The wicked will come to destroy the saints but God will deliver them (Dan 12:1).

A mountain is a symbol for a kingdom. cf. Dan 2:35, 44; Jer 51:25. The glorious holy mountain can be no other than the glorious holy kingdom of Christ];

yet he [the king of the north] shall come to his end, and none shall help him


cf. Isa 47:15. As literal Babylon’s life giving river, the Euphrates, was “dried up” (Jer 50:38; 51:36; Isa 44:27) to prepare the way for her destroyer, (King Cyrus) so spiritual Babylon’s Euphrates [its life giving supporters] will be “dried up” (Rev 16:12; 17:1, 15-16) to prepare the way of the kings of the east (Christ and those of Rev 5:10). See notes on verse 44 for the significance of East. The waters (peoples, nations, etc) upon which Babylon sits will cease to support her.

All ten “horns (who will give her their support for one hour)...shall hate the whore...and burn her with fire.” Rev 17:16. Thus none shall help.

Read Eze 38 & 39. In Eze 39:4 Gog, the king of the north (Eze 38 & 39) is to perish on the mountains of Israel.

As Pharaoh and all his host perished between the sea on the left and the sea on the right so the northern army is to perish between the seas

“But I will remove far off from you the northern [army], and will drive him into a land barren and desolate, with his face toward the east sea, and his hinder part toward the utmost sea, and his stink shall come up, and his ill savour shall come up, because he hath done great things.” Joel 2:20.


“Very soon will be fought the last great battle between good and evil. The earth is to be the battlefield.” R&H, May 13, 1902.

“The slain of the Lord shall be from one end of the earth even unto the other...” Jer 25:33.

Those who are “without the city (church)” Rev 14:20 will be destroyed. See Joel 2 esp. v 20. cf. Eze 38:15, 18-23 & Rev 19:11-21.

A time of trouble such as never was follows the abomination entering the holy place (cf. Dan 12:1 & Matt 24:22). As the crowning act of deception Satan will personate Christ in this time of trouble (Matt 24:23).

Matthew 24 compliments Daniel 11:31-12:2:

Matt 24 & Dan 11-12 both describe the same events, of the same period, in the same order. The power described in the second application of Matt 24 is the last power in Daniel 11.


Christ Himself said plainly:

“When ye therefore shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, stand in the holy place, (whoso readeth, let him understand...”

The context makes clear that Christ was most directly referring to Daniel 11. The most striking proof of this is that the events and their order in Matt 24 follow exactly the events and order of Dan 11.

Without doubt both passages are dealing with end time events. Matt 24 was Christ's answer to His disciples question, “When shall these things be ? and what shall be the sign of thy coming, and of the end of the world?” Matt 24:3

There is no better parallel in Scripture than Matt 24 and Dan 11:40 -45.

Was not Christ referring to the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans in Matt 24?

While it is true that Matt 24 had an application to the disciples' days and the destruction of Jerusalem and the temple (See Matt 24:1-3), it has a broader meaning.

In its application to the destruction of Jerusalem Christ’s words, “spoken of by Daniel the prophet...” referred to the abomination of Pagan Rome, “the people of the Prince that shall come [from Daniel's point of view]” which would “destroy the city [Jerusalem] and the sanctuary.” Dan 9:26. The Romans' idolatrous standards or banners, would be seen “upon the battlements” of Jerusalem (Dan 9:27 margin) that is, compassing Jerusalem (Luke 21:20), and at that time God's people were to flee to the mountains (Matt 24:16).

However Christ’s prophecy was twofold: The ruin of Jerusalem was a symbol of the final ruin that shall overwhelm the world. The prophecies that received a partial fulfillment in the overthrow of Jerusalem HAVE A MORE DIRECT APPLICATION TO THE LAST DAYS.” E.G. White, Thoughts on the Mount of Blessing, p120.

While it can be seen that in its first application Jesus was referring to Dan 9, His words HAVE A MORE DIRECT parallel to the last portion of Dan 11-12, which are without doubt referring to THE LAST DAYS.

The significance of this parallel is that if one identifies the abomination of desolation in Matt 24 then they have identified tha abomnaton of desolation in Dan 11.

In the first application of Matt 24 the Abomination of desolation standing in the holy place was the Pagan Roman Roman armies surrounding literal Jerusalem. In its second applicaton the abomination of desolation will be the PAPAL Roman ‘armies’ surrounding spiritual Israel intent on its destruction.

verse 45 He shall plant the tabernacles of his palace...

Tabernacles can refer to military tents.

Daniel 11:45 borrows from Psalm 83:1-18, which describes the TABERNACLES of a confederacy of Evil, the ENEMIES of Israel coming to overthrow Godʼs people who will be HIDING in the wilderness at that time. God will rise up and destroy them.

“For, lo, thine enemies make a tumult: and they that hate thee have lifted up the head. They have taken crafty counsel against thy people, and consulted against thy HIDDEN ONES They have said, Come, and let us CUT THEM OFF from [being] a nation; that the name of Israel may be no more in remembrance. For they have consulted together with ONE CONSENT [one mind]: they are confederate against thee: The TABERNACLES of Edom...Moab... Ammon...etc...Who said, Let us take to ourselves the houses of God in possession... Let them be confounded and TROUBLED for ever; yea, let them be put to shame, and perish.”

"Satanic agencies have been moved from beneath, and they have inspired men to unite in A CONFEDERACY OF EVIL that they may perplex, harass, and cause the people of God GREAT DISTRESS. The WHOLE WORLD is to be stirred with enmity against Seventh-day Adventists, because they will not yield homage to the PAPACY, by honoring Sunday, the institution of this anti-Christian power. It is the purpose of Satan to cause them to be BLOTTED FROM THE EARTH, in order that his supremacy of the world may not be disputed.” Advent Review and Sabbath Herald, 08-22-93.

verse 45 "between the seas in the glorious holy mountain..."

Those (seas) who have refused to join those who keep the commandments of God will gather in purpose under Papalism for the last great battle against the people of God (glorious holy mountain). They will ʻsurroundʼ (Luke 21:20; Matt 24:15) the purified “glorious” and “holy” church worldwide (Eph 5:27), intending to destroy her. The same will happen again at the end of the Millennium (Rev 20:7-9).

verse 45 "yet he shall come to his end, and none shall help him..."

However, just when the apostate church looks set to destroy the saints, its supporters will turn upon it and it shall come to its end, and none shall help it. (See Isa 47:15; Rev 17:16-17).

Daniel 12:1 Deliverance

“And at that time [Heb. eth. Period of time] shall Michael stand up, the great prince which standeth for the children of thy people: and there shall be a TIME OF TROUBLE such as never was since there was a nation [even] to that same time: and at that time thy people shall be DELIVERED, every one that shall be found written in the book.” cf. Matt 24.


KOTN = King of the North

KOTS = King of the South

  • verse 40: the KOTS (Atheism) attacks the KOTN (Papal Rome's deadly wound)

  • verse 40: the KOTN attacks the KOTS with Chariots, horsemen & ships.

  • Chariots & horsemen symbolically = MILITARY POWER.


  • verse 41: KOTN enters the church through its false doctrines. Many succumb to it.

  • verse 41: Edom, Moab & Ammon escape KOTN by accepting the 3 angel's messages.

  • verse 42: "Egypt" or Atheism in Communism will not escape the KOTN.

  • verse 42: Communism will succumb to the KOTN

  • verse 43: The KOTN will have have ECONOMIC control of the world.

  • verse 43: Libyans & Ethiopians represent the followers of Papal Rome & are at his feet.

  • verse 44: Messages from God out of the East & North trouble the KOTN.

  • verse 44: These messages warn the people about the KOTN.

  • verse 44: The 3 angels' messages of Rev 14 & that of Rev 18 infuriates Papal Rome.

  • verse 44: The KOTN goes all out to destroy those who warn the world about her.

  • verse 45: KOTN's final attack on God's people but comes to his end & none helps him

  • Daniel 12:1: Michael delivers his people in the time of trouble.


The end-time understanding of Matthew 24 describes the same end-time events of Daniel 11. In giving the signs to precede His coming, Jesus spoke of the abomination of desolation, and a time of trouble spoken of by Daniel. (Matt 24:15, 21) In Dan 11-12 we find the exact same things described in Matthew 24 in the exact same order. The last persecuting power of Matthew 24 is the last persecuting power of Daniel 11. And that power is ROME.

​Daniel 11:40-12:3

Matthew 24

Dan 11:40

the king of the south

shall push at him: and

the king of the north

shall come against him

Matt 24:7

For nation shall rise

against nation, and kingdom

against kingdom.

Dan 11:44

tidings [the gospel] out

of the east and out of

the north shall trouble


Matt 24:14

this gospel of the kingdom

shall be preached

in all the world

Dan 11:45

he shall plant the tabernacles

of his palace

between the seas



Matt 24:15

When ye therefore shall

see the abomination of

desolation, SPOKEN


prophet, stand IN THE


Dan 12:1 and there

shall be a time of

TROUBLE, such as

never was since there

was a nation even to

that same time.

Matt 24:21

Then shall be great


as was not since the

beginning of the world

to this time, no nor ever

shall be.

Dan 12:1

and at that time shall

thy people shall be


​Matt 24:22

But for the elects sake

those days shall be



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I found this interpretation of the expression "god of forces" in:

What do you think?

God bless



But in his estate shall he honour the God of forces: and a god whom his fathers knew not shall he honour with gold, and silver, and with precious stones, and pleasant things. Thus shall he do in the most strong holds with a strange god, whom he shall acknowledge and increase with glory: and he shall cause them to rule over many, and shall divide the land for gain.” Daniel 11:38, 39.

To understand this verse we need to look at the Hebrew words. ‘God of forces’ in this verse can also mean ‘goddess of fortresses.’ Here you…