top of page
  • Writer's picture


Updated: Nov 26, 2022

Who is the King of the North of the Daniel chapter 11?

Before answering this, we must establish some basic principles of prophetic interpretation of the symbolic language used in prophecy.


  • We must make the Bible its own expositor.

  • We must allow the Bible to explain the symbols.

  • We must compare Scripture with Scripture

  • 2 Pet 1:20 " prophecy of the Scripture is of any private interpretation.”

  • 1 Cor 2:13 “...comparing spiritual things with spiritual”

  • Isa 28:9, 10 “Line upon line, line upon line; here a little, and there a little.”

  • Isa 8:20 “To the law and to the testimony: if they speak not according to this word it is because there is no light in them”

The following are symbols used in prophecy to describe kingdoms or nations.

  1. “King” used interchangeably with "Kingdom" - Dan 2:37-38

  2. “Mountain” symbolic of a "kingdom' - Dan 2:35, Rev 17:9

  3. “Beasts” used interchangeably with “Kings”- Dan 7:17

  4. “Beasts” also said to be "Kingdoms" - Dan 7:23

  5. “Horns” represent Kings / Kingdoms - Dan 8:20-22

  6. “Heads” symbolic of kingdoms - Dan 7:6, Dan 2:38

  7. “Waters” symbolic of kingdoms - Rev 17:15

  8. “Great City” used interchangeably with "kingdom" - Rev 14:8, 16:19

  9. “Ribs” in Bear's mouth represent kingdoms the Ram conquered - Dan 7:7, Dan 8:4


Literal & local kingdoms in the old testament typify the global & spiritual in our day. The names remain the same but that which they refer to takes on a symbolic meaning when the Kingdom of Rome transitions to Papal Rome. The three angels messages of Revelation 14 and that of Revelation 18 include the cry that Babylon is fallen and to "come out of her my people". The Babylon of Revelation does not refer to the literal Babylon of King Nebuchadnezzar's day but to spiritual Babylon - see later.

  • LITERAL LOCAL Babylon => Spiritual Babylon (false religion world-wide).

  • LITERAL LOCAL Israel => Spiritual Israel (the Christian church)

  • LITERAL LOCAL sanctuary => Heavenly Sanctuary - for all mankind.

  • LITERAL LOCAL Jezebel => Spiritual Jezebel of Revelation.

  • LITERAL LOCAL River Euphrates => Spiritual Euphrates of Revelation.

  • LITERAL LOCAL 7 Churches => Spiritual 7 churches of Revelation.


  • Daniel follows the repeat & enlarge principle in the prophecies.

  • The last earthly power in Daniel 2, 7, 8 is Rome.

  • The last earthly power described in Daniel 11 must, therefore, be Rome.

“Does the eleventh chapter of the prophecy of Daniel cover the ground measured by chapters two, seven, and eight? If so, then the last power in that chapter is Rome." James White, Signs of the Times, July 22, 1880; Also R&H, Nov. 29, 1877.


  • Daniel 11 focuses on the kings of the North & South.

  • There is no Biblical rule for a chapter to be all symbolic or all literal.

  • Chapter breaks were not given by God.

  • God did not define where the chapter ends. These were added by man.

  • When comparing Scripture with Scripture points to the last part of the chapter being symbolic, this over-rides all human rules of interpretation.

  • Interpretations requiring the end of the chapter to be known are private interpretations.


  • The Daniel 2 image commences with literal Babylon, the head of Gold.

  • Daniel 2 ends with spiritual Babylon at the feet of iron & clay

  • Daniel chapters 5 & 8 fill in the rest of the image's kingdoms.

  • Babylon => Medo-Persia => Grecia => Rome => Papal Rome.

  • Daniel 2 has the image of a man

  • Daniel 7 has the eyes of a man and the mouth of a man

  • Daniel 11 has the MEN ruling in those kingdoms commencing with Persia.

  • Daniel 11 is a further detailed explanation of Daniel 8.

  • Daniel 8 ends with the little horn - Papal Rome.

  • Hence Daniel 11 must end with the last MAN of the Image - Papal Rome

  • Papal Rome is therefore the King of the North of Daniel 11.

  • There is no Turkey in all this [no pun intended].

In Daniel chapter 2, the Image is interpreted as follows:


King Nebuchadnezzar's Babylon is the Head of Gold and the King of the North of the Daniel 2 image.


Daniel 2:39 "And after thee shall arise another kingdom inferior to thee, and another third kingdom of brass, which shall bear rule over all the earth."

After Babylon, the mighty power of the Medes & Persians, the second kingdom, comes to power overthrowing Babylon. The narrative is told in Daniel chapter 5.


Daniel 2:39 "And after thee shall arise ...... another third kingdom of brass, which shall bear rule over all the earth."

Grecia crushes the Medes & Persians in Daniel chapter 8 as we see these powers at war in the symbolism of the Ram (Medo-Persia) & the He-Goat (Grecia)


Daniel 2:40 "And the fourth kingdom shall be strong as iron: forasmuch as iron breaketh in pieces and subdueth all things: and as iron that breaketh all these, shall it break in pieces and bruise." Rome enters the prophecy in Daniel 8 as the Little Horn. It arises in the latter time of the four divisions of the Grecian kingdom after Alexander the Great's empire was carved up by his four generals - Cassander, Lysimachus, Ptolomey and Seleucus. The characteristics of this horn unmistakably point to Rome both Imperial and Papal. Note the transition from Pagan Rome to Papal Rome as the iron legs give way to the feet of Iron (ROME) and Clay (?)


Note the following:

  • Daniel 2 has the image of a MAN representing the prophetic kingdoms.

  • Daniel 7 contains the eyes of a MAN

  • Daniel 7 also contains the mouth of a MAN

  • Daniel 11 has the MEN ruling the prophetic kingdoms.

  • Revelation 13 has the number of a MAN

  • Revelation 13 has the name of a MAN

Daniel 11 - the MEN who ruled in those kingdoms:

  • Xerxes - Persia.

  • Alexander the Great - Grecia.

  • Julius Caesar etc. - Rome.

  • Popes - Papal Rome


The last power that comes to its end in Daniel 8:25 is Papal Rome - "he shall be broken without hand". With Daniel 11 being a more detailed explanation of Daniel 8, it goes to follow that the last power to come to its end in Daniel 11:45 is Papal Rome, the King of the North - "..shall come to his end,..none shall help him"



Verses 1 & 2 - Medo-Persia and its four kings.

Also I (Gabriel) in the first year of Darius the Mede, even I, stood to confirm and to strengthen him. And now will I (Gabriel) shew thee the truth. Behold, there shall stand up yet three kings in Persia; (Medo-Persia) and the fourth (Xerxes I, the Great, alias Ahasuerus of Esther 1:1-7) shall be far richer than they all: and by his strength through his riches he shall stir up all against the realm of Grecia. vs 1,2

Four Persian kings which followed Cyrus were:

1. Cambyses II 530-522BC

2. False Smerdis alias Gaumata. Reigned part of 522BC, and hindered the work of rebuilding the sanctuary in Jerusalem.

3. Darius I 522-486BC.

4. Xerxes I, the Great, (486-475BC. This is the Ahasuerus of Esther 1:1-7). He was “richer than all” and with his wealth he raised a huge army intending to conquer Greece. - “by his strength through his riches he shall stir up all against the realm of Grecia"

Pythius, a Lydian, offered to help fund Xerxes’ invasion of Grecia. Upon asking who this man was, Xerxes received this reply: “...he is, next to yourself, the richest man of whom we have any knowledge.” Heredotus, book 7, sec 27, Loeb Classical Library, p 343. cf. Est 1:4-7.


Verses 3 & 4 mighty king - Alexander the Great

Break up of Grecia into 4 kingdoms and eventually 2 territories : Kingdoms of the North & South

Verse 3: "And a mighty king [Alexander the Great - Grecia] shall stand up, [come to power] that shall rule with great dominion, and do according to his will." cf

Daniel 10:20 Then said he, Knowest thou wherefore I come unto thee? and now will I return to fight with the prince of Persia: and when I am gone forth, lo, the prince of Grecia shall come. At the death of Alexander the Great, the Grecian empire was divided among his four generals, Cassander. Lysimachus, Ptolomey and Seleucus.

Verse 4: And when he shall stand up, his kingdom shall be broken, and shall be divided toward the four winds of heaven; and not to his posterity, nor according to his dominion which he ruled: [each division was weaker than the whole] for his kingdom shall be plucked up, even for others beside those.

Broken = Alexander the great was the mighty king who ruled with great dominion but died at the height of his power.

Divided toward the four winds = After Alexander’s death Greece was divided not among his children but among four of his generals (Parallels the four horns on the Grecian He-Goat: Daniel 8:8, 22). Alexander’s young son was murdered and Alexander’s generals took upon themselves the titles and styles of kings. See Diadorus, Book 19, sec 105, Loeb Classical Library, p119

  1. Cassander - Greece and the adjacent countries, which lay to the west

  2. Lysimachus - Thrace, Asia Minor, the Hellespont and Bosphorus & north of Palestine

  3. Seleucus - Syria and Babylon, which lay to the east;

  4. Ptolemy - Egypt & neighbouring countries, which lay to the south.

The Grecian Empire finally resolved into two Kingdoms:

The Kingdom of the North centred in Syria and ruled by the King of the North - Seleucus

The Kingdom of the South centred in Egypt and ruled by the King of the South - Ptolemy


Verse 5: Ptolemy and Seleucus

"And the king of the south [Ptolemy 1 - Egypt] shall be strong, and one of his [one of Ptolemy’s] princes; [Seleucus Nicator, 305-281BC,] and he [Seleucus] shall be strong above him, [above Ptolemy], and have dominion; his dominion shall be a great dominion." [The Seleucid Empire]

“Seleucus ruled from the Mediterranean to the Indus...having a territory 5 to 6 times as large as that of Ptolemy. His dominion was emphatically a great dominion.” Egypt and Babylon, p 207.

Arrian, the leading historian of the period said that Seleucus was "the greatest king of those who succeeded Alexander, and the most royal mind, and ruled over the greatest extent of territory, next to Alexander." Anabasis of Alexander vii. 22).

Verse 6 - Berenice, daughter of the King of the South

"And in the end of years they shall join themselves together; for the king's daughter of the south shall come to the king of the north to make an agreement: but she shall not retain the power of the arm; neither shall he stand, nor his arm: but she shall be given up, and they that brought her, and he that begat her, and he that strengthened her in these times."

About 35 years after the death of Seleucus 1 a notable marriage alliance took place but it failed to bring peace. There were frequent wars between the kings of Egypt and Syria. Especially was this the case with Ptolemy Philadelphus, the second king of Egypt, and Antiochus Theos, third king of Syria. They at length agreed to make peace upon condition that Antiochus Theos should put away his former wife, Laodice, and her two sons, and should marry Berenice, the daughter of Ptolemy Philadelphus. Ptolemy accordingly brought his daughter to Antiochus, bestowing with her an immense dowry. {1897 UrS, DAR 250.4}

History records the accurate fulfillment of the continuing conflicts between the Ptolemies and the Seleucids.

Verse 6: And in the end of years they [kingdoms of the North & South] shall join themselves together; for the king's daughter of the south [Berenice, the daughter of Ptolemy II Philadelphus] shall come to the king of the north [Antiochus II Theos, 261-246BC] to make an agreement: [to marry to solidify peace] but she [Berenice] shall not retain the power of the arm; [Antiochus later divorced Berenice and took back Laodice] neither shall he [Antiochus] stand, [Antiochus died suddenly ? poisoned by Laodice] nor his arm: [some read, “his seed” referring to his children by Berenice] but she [Berenice] shall be given up, [divorced] and they that brought her, [maids] and he that begat her, [vowel change suggests her child who was murdered - see RSV] and he that strengthened her in these times. [probably Antiochus] See Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ed., Vol. 10, p618, art. Seleucus II.

Verse 6: “Halfway through this century (249 BC.) the desultory warfare between Egypt and the Seleucid power came to a temporary end (Dan 11:6). Ptolemy II, Philadelphus, gave his daughter Berenice with a great dowry to Antiochus II, Theos. When Ptolemy died (247 BC.) Antiochus’ divorced wife Laodice was restored to favor, and Antiochus died suddenly [poisoned by Laodice] in order that she might regain her power. Berenice and her son were likewise removed from the path of her son Seleucus……the new king of Egypt, Ptolemy III, Euergetes I, invaded the Seleucid territory, ‘entered the fortress of the king of the north’ (Dan 11:7 sqq.), and returned - laden with the spoils, images captured from Egypt by Cambyses, and captives (Jerome on Daniel loc. cit.) - to put down a domestic rebellion.” Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Ed., art. Palestine]

Berenice (Seleucid Queen) - Wikipedia

Berenice (Ancient Greek: Βερενίκη, Berenikē) (c.275 BC[1]–246 BC), also called Berenice Phernophorus ("Dowry Bearer") or Berenice Syra, was the daughter of Ptolemy II Philadelphus of his first wife Arsinoe I of Egypt.

Around 252 BC, following the peace agreement of 253 BC between Antiochus and Ptolemy to end the Second Syrian War, she married the Seleucid monarch Antiochus II Theos, who divorced his wife Laodice I and transferred the succession to Berenice's children.

In 246 BC, when Ptolemy died, Antiochus II took up again with his first wife, Laodice. Antiochus died shortly thereafter, many suspect from poisoning. Queen Berenice claimed the regency for her infant son Antiochus however, she and her son were both killed by Laodice. Berenice's brother, Ptolemy III Euergetes, succeeded their father and set about to avenge his sister's murder by invading Syria and having Laodice killed. This is also mentioned in the Book of Daniel 11:6.[2]"

2.John H. Walton, Victor H. Matthews and Mark W. Chavalas. IVP Bible Background Commentary, 2000.


*KOTN = King of the North

**KOTS - King of the South

But out of a branch of her roots shall one stand up [Berenice’s brother, Ptolemy III Euergetes] in his estate, which shall come with an army, and shall enter into the fortress of the king of the north, [Ptolemy III attacked Laodice’s son, Seleucus II Callinicus, 246-226], and shall deal against them, and shall prevail:


"And shall also carry captives into Egypt their gods, with their princes, and with their precious vessels of silver and of gold; and he shall continue more years than the king of the north. So the king of the south shall come into his kingdom, and shall return into his own land."


"But his [Seleucus II Callinicus, the KON], sons [Seleucus III Ceranus Soter, who was murdered after a short reign, & Antiochus III Magnus (the Great)] shall be stirred up, and shall assemble a multitude of great forces: and one [Antiochus III Magnus (the Great)] shall certainly come, and overflow, and pass through: [In 219BC he retook much from his rival Ptolemy] then shall he return, and be stirred up, even to his fortress."


"And the king of the south [Ptolemy IV Philopater] shall be moved with choler, [anger] and shall come forth and fight with him, even with the king of the north: [Antiochus III]: and he [Antiochus III, king of the north] shall set forth a great multitude;[62,000 infantry, 6000 cavalry, 102 elephants (Polybius, Histories, v. 79)]; but the multitude shall be given into his" [Ptolemy IV’s] hand. [Ptolemy IV was victorious at the battle of Raphia, 217 B.C. AntiochusIII is reputed to have lost 10,000 infantry and 300 cavalry, plus 4000 prisoners.]

"And when he [Ptolemy IV] hath taken away the multitude, his heart shall be lifted up; [When in Jerusalem he attempted to enter the most holy place but the Jews withstood him. This upset Ptolemy] and he shall cast down many ten thousands: [He slaughtered 40-60,000 Jews in Alexandria] but he shall not be strengthened by it." [Ptolemy IV Philopater did not capitalize on his victory over the north. He died 205 B.C.? and his four-five year old son, Ptolemy V Epiphanes who ruled 204?-180 B.C., took the throne]


"For the king of the north [Antiochus 111] shall return, [Antiochus saw five year old Ptolemy V Epiphanes on the Egyptian throne as a good opportunity to attack the South] and shall set forth a multitude greater than the former, and shall certainly come after certain years [literally, “at the end of times, years.” The period is probably the 16 years which passed after the Battle of Raphia before Antiochus’ second campaign against the south] with a great army and with much riches.


"And in those times there shall many stand up against the king of the south: also the robbers of thy people shall exalt themselves to establish the vision; but they shall fall."

[Heb. “periyts” - literally BREAKERS or destroyers. Same word used in Ps 17:4. Compare Daniel 7:23 “Thus he said, The fourth beast shall be the fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall be diverse from all kingdoms, and shall DEVOUR the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and BREAK it in pieces.”] Rome, the breakers / conquerers of Daniel's people enters the prophecy to establish the vision and the correctness of the vision.

Rome’s appearance at this point confirms the accuracy of the vision.

Myer’s General History: “Syria, or the kingdom of the Selucidae (312-65B.C.).- Under its first rulers this kingdom comprised nominally almost all the countries of Asia conquered by Alexander, thus stretching from the Hellespont to the Indus; but in reality the monarchy embraced only Asia Minor, Syria, and the Old Assyria and Babylonia...but finally the country was overrun by the Roman Legions and was made part of the Roman Republic.” (63B.C.).” Myer’s General History

"Antiochus, king of Syria, and Philip, king of Macedonia, during the reign of Ptolemy Philopater, had discovered the strongest zeal for the interests of that monarch, and were ready to assist him on all occasions. Yet no sooner was he dead, leaving behind him an infant, whom the laws of humanity and justice enjoined them not to disturb in the possession of his father's kingdom, than they immediately joined in a criminal alliance, and excited each other to shake off the lawful heir, and divide his dominions between them. Philip was to have Caria, Libya, Cyrenaica, and Egypt; and Antiochus, all the rest. With this view, the latter entered Coele-Syria and Palestine, and in less than two campaigns made an entire conquest of the two provinces, with all their cities and dependencies. Their guilt, says Polybius, would not have been quite so glaring, had they, like tyrants, endeavored to gloss over their crimes with some specious pretense; but, so far from doing this, their injustice and cruelty were so barefaced, that to them was applied what is generally said of fishes, that the larger ones, though of the same species, prey on the lesser. One would be tempted, continues the same author, at seeing the most sacred laws of society so openly violated, to accuse Providence of being indifferent and insensible to the most horrid crimes; but it fully justified its conduct by punishing those two kings according to their deserts; and made such an example of them as ought, in all succeeding ages, to deter others from following their example. For, while they were meditating to dispossess a weak and helpless infant of his kingdom by piecemeal, Providence raised up the Romans against them, who entirely subverted the kingdoms of Philip and Antiochus, and reduced their successors to almost as great calamities as those with which they intended to crush the infant king." - Ancient History, Book 18, chap. 50. {1897 UrS, DAR 256.3}


"So the king of the north [Antiochus III] shall come, and cast up a mount, [siegeworks] and take the most fenced cities: [Sidon and Gaza both fell to Antiochus III] and the arms [military forces] of the south shall not withstand, neither his chosen people, neither shall there be any strength to withstand [Egypt, "the arms of the south" or King of the South, fell].

Verses 16 - 30 takes in the following:

  • Pagan Rome, the new King of the North after it conquers the Northern Kingdom.

  • Julius Caesar

  • Augustus Caesar

  • Tiberius Caesar

  • Jesus Christ - vs 22


"But he [Rome] that cometh against him [against Antiochus III] shall do according to his own will, [Have power over all] and none shall stand before him: [Rome would conquer all] and he [Rome] shall stand in the glorious land, [Palestine] which by his hand shall be consumed [conquered]."

Pagan Rome conquers the Kingdom of the North and takes on the title "King of the North".

Note the characteristics of this power in verses 16, 14, 22

  • Do according to his own will.

  • None shall stand before him.

  • He shall stand in the glorious land (Palestine)

  • The glorious land will be consumed (conquered) by this power.

  • This power arose after the division of the Grecian kingdom.

  • This power is the robbers of thy (Daniel's) people - v 14

  • This power crucified the Prince of the Covenant - v 22

Only one power fits the bill - Imperial or Pagan Rome.

This power corresponds to the little horn of Daniel 8 / King of fierce countenance after the division of the Grecian Empire -Daniel 8:23

Moses predicted this power would arise and decimate God's people:

Deut 28:29,50 - "The LORD shall bring a nation against thee from far, from the end of the earth, as swift as the eagle flieth; a nation whose tongue thou shalt not understand; A nation of fierce countenance, which shall not regard the person of the old, nor shew favour to the young:"

As we saw earlier, "King" and "Kingdom" used interchangeably in prophecy. This "nation" of fierce countenance is the King of fierce countenance of Daniel 8:23 which understood dark sentences. Israel did not understand Latin, the language / tongue of Rome.


"He [Rome] shall also set his face [determine] to enter with the strength of his whole kingdom, and upright ones with him; thus shall he do: and he shall give him [give to Rome] the daughter of women, [Cleopatra] corrupting her: but she shall not stand on his side, neither be for him.


"After this shall he turn his face unto the isles, and shall take many: but a prince for his own behalf shall cause the reproach offered by him to cease; without his own reproach he shall cause it to turn upon him. Then he shall turn his face toward the fort of his own land: but he shall stumble and fall, and not be found."


"Then shall stand up in his [Julius Caesar] estate a raiser of taxes [Augustus Caesar] in the glory of the kingdom: but within few days he shall be destroyed, neither in anger, nor in battle." (Augustus died peaceably & not in battle]

Luke 2:1 "And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus, that all the world should be taxed."


"And in his [Augustus Caesar] estate shall stand up a vile person, [Tiberius Caesar] to whom they shall not give the honour of the kingdom: [The people of Rome did not like this eccentric, misunderstood, and unloved person] but he shall come in peaceably, [When Augustus died, Tiberius ascended to the throne peacefully] and obtain the kingdom by flatteries." [Tiberius was the only stepson of Augustus. His ascension owed much to the flatterings and manoeuvring of his mother, Livia]

Luke 3:1,2: "Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judaea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of Ituraea and of the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene, Annas and Caiaphas being the high priests, the word of God came unto John the son of Zacharias in the wilderness."


"And with the arms of a flood [military forces] shall they [enemies of Rome] be overflown from before him, [Tiberius led several successful military campaigns in Germany and in the East] and shall be broken; yea, also the prince of the covenant."


"And after the league made with him [in 161 B.C. the Jews entered a league with Rome] he shall work deceitfully: for he shall come up, and shall become strong with a small [little] people." [Here the “little horn” - Rome, began to become exceeding great. cf. Dan 8:9]


"He [Rome] shall enter peaceably even upon the fattest places of the province; and he shall do that which his fathers have not done, nor his fathers' fathers; he shall scatter among them the prey, and spoil, and riches: yea, and he shall forecast his devices against the strong holds, even for a time."

The usual manner in which nations had, before the days of Rome, entered upon valuable provinces and rich territory, was by war and conquest. Rome was now to do what had not been done by the fathers or the fathers' fathers; namely, receive these acquisitions through peaceful means. The custom, before unheard of, was now inaugurated, of kings' leaving by legacy their kingdoms to the Romans. Rome came into possession of large provinces in this manner. [Rome was diverse from previous kingdoms in that she reached a stage where she allowed her people to vote in their government becoming the first Republic. Rome also often conquered through diplomacy. She entered agreements with nations calling them ‘allies,’ but Rome was usually the benefactor];

The city of Rome would continue to be the seat of world government for 360 years. From when? The battle of Actium, 31 B.C., described in the next few verses, is apparently the starting point, for it was from that date that Rome gained absolute supremacy over all when it conquered Egypt. Accordingly the 360 years ran from 31 B.C. - A.D. 330. Did Rome cease to be the seat of government in A.D. 330? Yes. Emperor Constantine gave Rome up and moved his capital to Constantinople.

[After the death of Julius Caesar, Mark Antony sought to replace him. However Julius’ grandnephew and adopted heir, Octavius, won the popular support from Antony to himself. Bitter rivalry existed between them but they faked reconciliation. They divided the empire between themselves, Octavius took Italy and the west, Antony took Egypt and the east]


"And he [Octavius] shall stir up his power and his courage against the king of the south [Mark Antony / Cleopatra - Egypt] with a great army; and the king of the south shall be stirred up to battle with a very great and mighty army; but he shall not stand: for they shall forecast devices against him."

This is the final battle between the LITERAL kings of the North and South as Imperial Rome will undergo a metamorphosis to Papal Rome in verses 30-31. From verse 31 to 45 Papal Rome assumes the mantle of the spiritual King of the North just as we saw in Daniel 2 where the image begins with LITERAL BABYLON and ends with spiritual Babylon in the form of Papal Rome in the feet of Iron & clay.


"Yea, they that feed of the portion of his (Mark Antony) meat [the forces in the employ of Mark Antony] shall destroy him, [Cleopatra, Mark Antony’s mistress, fled the battle with 60 ships, Mark Antony followed. Upon seeing the fleet of Antony flee, Antony’s land army went over to Octavius], and his army shall overflow: [“be washed” (Vulgate, Syriac) or “swept away” (RSV)] and many shall fall down slain. [In 32 B.C. Mark Antony committed suicide. Cleopatra, finding that she could not ingratiate herself with Octavius, also committed suicide].

*KOTN = King of the North

**KOTS = King of the South


"And both these kings' hearts shall be to do mischief, and they shall speak lies at one table; [Referring to their previous faked reconciliation] but it shall not prosper: for yet the end shall be at the time appointed."


"Then shall he [Octavius who became Augustus Caesar] return into his land with great riches; [Octavius brought vast riches from Egypt to Rome. See Prideaux II, 380]

and his heart shall be against the holy covenant; [Under various leaders Rome warred against the plan of salvation] and he shall do exploits, and return to his own land.


"At the time appointed [A.D. 330, at the end of the 360 years] he shall return, and come toward the south; but it shall not be as the former, or as the latter. [In A.D. 330 Constantine shifted the capital from Rome to Constantinople in an effort to find a safer seat of government. Many take this as the signal for the downfall of the empire. With no strong ruler in the city of Rome the bishop of Rome (the Pope) rose in power].


"For the ships of Chittim [“A general term for all islanders of the Mediterranean SeaCoasts and Isles of the Mediterranean Sea” Strongs. cf. Num 24:24; Jer 2:10. Chittim was a source of ivory.] shall come against him: [The Vandals from Carthage on the Mediterranean coast of Africa attacked the Roman empire] therefore he [Rome] shall be grieved, and return, and have indignation against the holy covenant: so shall he do; he shall even return, and have intelligence with them that forsake the holy covenant. [Imperial Rome was weakening - she made overtures with the apostates in the 'Christian' church who were in the majority, i.e. "them that forsake the holy covenant". Imperial Rome was transitioning to Papal Rome as the subtle change from Pagan Rome to Christian Rome takes place here. There is no change in the pronouns but this is in keeping with Daniel 8, where one horn represents both Pagan & Papal Rome]. [Verse 31 repeats that which was described in Dan 8:11-12.]


  • Pagan Rome, the King of the North transitions to Papal Rome.

  • Papal Rome, King of the North. cf Legs of Iron => feet of iron & clay - Dan 2

  • The setting up of Papal Rome - vs 31

  • The 1260 years of persecution of Bible believing Christians by Papal Rome - vs 33 to 35


"And arms [military forces such as the Franks (French)] shall stand on his part, [Shall give their strength and support to Papal Rome] and they shall pollute the sanctuary of strength, and shall take away the daily sacrifice, and they shall place the abomination that maketh desolate."

“Arms” [Heb. zeroah] refers to military forces in Dan 11:15. The word “sacrifice” is not in the Hebrew. The word translated “daily” is elsewhere translated “continual.” “Take away” is from the Hebrew “suwr” and means “remove” while the thing removed still exists but not in its original setting. It is used as in putting off garments (Gen 38:14); removing a cover (Gen 8:13); a man turned aside from the commandments (Deut 17:20).

The word “sanctuary” is from the Hebrew “miqdash,” which can refer to pagan temples (Isa 16:12; Eze 28:18.) The word “strength” is from the Hebrew “maowz”, -repeatedly used to refer to the forts and fortresses, the leading cities, of pagan powers. (See Dan 11:7, 10, 19, 38, 39). The temple of Pagan Rome was polluted by the arms of Papal Rome.

“Rome” in the Greek New Testament is from the Greek “Rhome” and means “strength.”

“Arms” took away the “daily” (or continual) in order “to set up” the “abomination that maketh desolate” - Papal Rome (Dan 12:11 margin). In 2Thess Paul guardedly called the “daily” the “withholder,” that existed in his day and said that it would be “TAKEN OUT OF THE WAY” to reveal the “man of sin” - Papal Rome. What power existing in Paulʼs day withheld the rise of Papal Rome and had to be taken out of the way by military force of “arms” in order to reveal Papal Rome? The answer is the continual spirit of self-exaltation in Pagan Roman form. The “daily” thus represented the “continual” spirit of self-exaltation in its Pagan form which was taken away by military arms in order to set up the same spirit in its Papal form. Forces fighting on behalf of the Papacy took away or removed all anti-papal self exalting op- position while the Papacy took up (Heb. ruwm Dan 8:11) the same spirit.

The Franks (French), under their king Clovis, were the first barbarian nation of Europe to pledge their support to defend and establish the Catholic faith. Their military “arms” overthrew competing forms of self- exaltation, namely Paganism and Arianism and helped “place” (“set up” Dan 12:11 margin) the “abomination that maketh desolate” - the self-exalting church/state power known as the Papacy or Papal Rome.


*Verse 32

"And such as do wickedly against the covenant shall he corrupt by flatteries: but the people that do know their God shall be strong, and do [exploits]." The church apostates i.e. those that do wickedly against the covenant were corrupted by Rome but the faithful, those that knew their God continue to do exploits (witnesss of the Gospel) amid the persecutions of the day.

*Verse 33

"And they that understand among the people shall instruct many: yet they shall fall by the sword, and by flame, by captivity, and by spoil, [many] days."

Many faithful Christians were martyred by Papal Rome.

*Verse 34

"Now when they shall fall, they shall be holpen with a little help: but many shall cleave to them with flatteries."

The Protestant Reformation helped somewhat to ease the persecution.

*Verse 35

"And [some] of them of understanding shall fall, to try them, and to purge, and to make [them] white, [even] to the time of the end: because [it is] yet for a time appointed." The persecution continued "even to the time of the end"

*Apostate Papal leaders corrupted many, but the faithful, who knew God, witnessed at great peril to their lives; people such as the Waldenses, the Hugenots, the Albigenses and some Reformers like Wycliffe, Huss, Jerome, and Luther. Many of those whom Papal Rome could not corrupt she slew, burned, or imprisoned during the “many days” she held power (1260 “days” which symbolize 1260 years Eze 4:6; Num 14:34. The 1260 days, 42 months or 3 1/2 times is mentioned in Dan 7:25; 12:7; Rev 2:6, 14; 13:5).

The persecution of God's people continued to "the time of the end" hence a finite event. Something must have happened to the persecutor at the "time of the end" to cease the persecution. Verses 36 to 39 give us added details regarding Papal Rome. If we momentarily pause verses 36-39 and drop down to verse 40, we get the reason why the persecution of God's people ceased. Verse 40 commences with the "time of the end" when the King of the South pushes at the King of the North, delivering a deadly wound to the persecutor, thereby temporarily terminating attack on Bible believing Christians. More later when we get to verse 40.

The “many days” (verse 33) of Papal supremacy, (1260 years. See on Dan 7:25) were to reach to “the time of the end.”

As the Papal supremacy ended in 1798, “the time of the end” began in 1798.


“Berthier [The French general] entered Rome on the 10th of February 1798, and proclaimed a Republic...The aged Pontiff [Pope] refused to violate his oath by rec- ognizing it, and was hurried from prison to prison in France...he died...No wonder that half of Europe thought that with the Pope the papacy was dead.” J. Rickaby, The Modern Papacy, p1

Having brought us to “the time of the end” in verse 35, the prophecy goes back in time in verse 36 to add further identifying points for Papal Rome, bringing us back to the “time of the end” in verse 40 when Papal Rome, the King of the North is attacked by the King of the South resulting in its deadly wound (Rev 13:3).


"And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvellous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done."


As seen earlier "KING" and "KINGDOM" are used interchangeably in prophecy. (Daniel 2:37,38) In the Hebrew the definite article precedes the word ‘king.’ This would imply that the power brought to view in verse 36 has already been referred to in the previous verses, namely 30-35.

Rome is the power described in verses 30-35 and is the power here described in verse 36:

“The prophecy in the eleventh of Daniel has nearly reached its complete fulfillment. Much of the history that has taken place in fulfillment of this prophecy will be repeated. In the thirtieth verse A POWER is spoken of that "shall be grieved...And the king shall do according to his will. [verses 31-36, quoted.]” 13MR 394.

What power is spoken of in verses 30-36 inclusive? The power of papal Rome. Thus the king in verse 36 is Papal Rome. Some contend that the king of verse 36 is Napoleon or France but Napoleon / France was not mentioned in verses 30... to 35.


Exercises total control. “According to his will” is only used in reference to the successive world powers which had the power of life & death over God’s people. cf. Medo Persia Daniel 8:4; Grecia Daniel 11:3; Pagan Rome Daniel 11:16. After Pagan Rome the next power to have such supremacy was Papal Rome.

“... compromise between Paganism and Christianity resulted in the development of the "man of sin" foretold in prophecy as opposing and exalting himself above God. That gigantic system of false religion is a masterpiece of Satan's power - a monument of his efforts to seat himself upon the throne to rule the earth ACCORDING TO HIS WILL...Satan worked ACCORDING TO HIS WILL" Great Controversy p. 50, 51

QUES. Papal Rome was first introduced in Daniel 11:31. Why was it not then said to have done according to his will? ANS. The rise and actions of Greece under Alexander is described in the first part of Daniel 11:3, but his doing according to his will is mentioned in the latter part of verse 3. Pagan Rome, the robber of God's people, was introduced in Daniel 11:14 but his doing according to his will was not mentioned until verse 16. As these do not present a problem neither does Daniel 11:31-36


This power exalts itself above God by claiming to have changed God’s law. cf. Daniel 7:25


Papal Rome freely admits to changing the Lord's day, the Sabbath, from Saturday the seventh day of the week to Sunday the first day of the week. In reply to a letter of Oct. 2, 1895, asking if the Catholic Church claims that the change of the Sabbath to the first day is her mark, the following was received: “Of course the Catholic Church claims that the change was her act, and the act is a MARK of her ecclesiastical power and authority in religious matters.” Signed A.F. Thomas, Chancellor for the Cardinal.

“Sunday is our MARK of authority...The church is above the Bible and this transference of sabbath observance from Saturday to Sunday is proof of the fact.” Catholic record of London, Ontario, Canada, Sept. 1, 1928.

“The Catholic Church for over one thousand years before the existence of a protestant, by virtue of her divine mission, changed the day from Saturday to Sunday.” The Catholic Mirror, Sept 23 1893.

"Is not every Christian obliged to sanctify Sunday to abstain on that day from unnecessary servile work? Is not the observance of this law Among the most prominent of our sacred duties? But you may read the bible from genesis to revelation, and you will not find a single line here authorizing the sanctification of Sunday. The scriptures enforce the religious observance of Saturday, a day which we never sanctify.” Faith of our Fathers, by Cardinal Gibbons p.86

Above graphic from St Joseph's Catechism, Baltimore. USA.

“The prophetic declaration that the papacy was to oppose and exalt itself "above all that is called God, or that is worshipped," was strikingly fulfilled in the change of the Sabbath from the seventh to the first day of the week. Wherever the papal Sabbath is honored in preference to the Sabbath of the Lord, there is the man of sin exalted above the Creator of the heavens and the earth.  {BTS, February 1, 1913 par. 1} 

“The prophet Daniel declared that the Roman Church, symbolized by the little horn, was to think to change times and laws, [Daniel 7:25.] while Paul styled it the man of sin, [2Thessalonians 2:3, 4.] who was to exalt himself above God. Only by changing God's law could the papacy exalt itself above God; whoever should understandingly keep the law as thus changed would be giving supreme honor to that power by which the change was made. Such an act of obedience to papal laws would be a mark of allegiance to the pope in the place of God.”  {4SP 279.1}

Therefore, only one power in verse 36 fulfils the description of exalting itself above God: Papal Rome & its admission it changed the 7th day Sabbath from Saturday to Sunday.

France or Napoleon is NOT the King of verse 36, therefore, those who insist on France / Napoleon being the King of verse 36 and a triangular war in Daniel 11:40 go against inspired counsel! The King of verse 36, then, is a private interpretation in that narrative.


Compare this, line upon line, with:

- Daniel 7:8 – “…and, behold, in this horn [were] eyes like the eyes of man, and a mouth speaking great things.”

- And again in Daniel 7:25 - “And he shall speak [great] words against the most High,…”

- Repeated again in Revelation 13:5,6 – “And there was given unto him a mouth speaking great things and blasphemies; and power was given unto him to continue forty [and] two months. And he opened his mouth in blasphemy against God, to blaspheme his name, and his tabernacle, and them that dwell in heaven.”

Words against the Most High, Blasphemies, Blaspheme. The bible tells us what it means to Blaspheme:

"Then the Jews took up stones again to stone him. Jesus answered them, Many good works have I showed you from my Father; for which of those works do ye stone me? The Jews answered him, saying, For a good work we stone thee not; but for blasphemy; and because that thou, being a man, makest thyself God." John 10:31-33

"And, behold, they brought to him a man sick of the palsy, lying on a bed: and Jesus seeing their faith said unto the sick of the palsy; Son, be of good cheer; thy sins be forgiven thee. And, behold, certain of the scribes said within themselves, This [man] blasphemeth." Matthew 9:2,3

Therefore, to speak "marvellous things", "speaking great things" or to "blaspheme" is to claim to be God or to be able to forgive sin. Papal Rome in so doing is guilty of blasphemy and Blasphemy is one of the identifying points of the King of Daniel 11:36. Papal Rome is that King not Napoleon.


Papal Rome prospered and became influential. “ [the little horn] cast down the truth to the ground; and it practised, and prospered.” Daniel 8:12, 24.

Compare the harlot of Revelation 17:4 dripping with gold & jewels. “How much she [the whore of Revelation 17] hath glorified herself, and lived deliciously.” Rev 18:7


All that is determined in the investigative judgment of the little horn power shall be done [“until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolator [Rome].” Daniel 9:27. (margin)

After quoting verse 36 William Miller wrote: “The king here spoken of is the same as Daniel’s little horn, which came up among the ten horns. It is the same that blasphemed the God of heaven. It is mystical Babylon (Isa 14:2-15; Rev 13:5-6). The same Paul described in his epistle, 2Thess 2:19,” William Miller, Evidence from Scripture & Prophecy, p97-98].


"Neither shall he regard the God of his fathers, nor the desire of women, nor regard any god: for he shall magnify himself above all."


The apostles likened themselves to fathers of their converts (1 Cor 4:15; 3 John 4; Phil 1:10) Note: We are not to call any man our spiritual Father. Matt 23:9 By commanding unbiblical doctrines the Papacy shows that it does not regard the God of its ʻfathers.ʼ


In Isaiah 4:1 Christ is represented as the desire of women. Women symbolize churches (Jeremiah 6:2; 2Cor 11:2). In the end times many churches desire to be called by Christʼs name while doing what they want. Papal Rome has not regarded Christ, the desire of churches, in that Rome has done contrary to Christʼs word - the Bible cf John 8:31.

Incidentally marriage might also be called the desire of women, (Genesis 3:16) and this is also forbidden the Catholic clergy and the Nuns.

“Although celibacy is not expressly enforced by the Saviour...the [Catholic] Church felt it her duty to lay it down as a law.” The Faith of Our Fathers, James Cardinal Gibbons, (Roman Catholic) 1917 ed., p401.

In 1 Timothy 4:1-3 Paul foretold the papal practices of celibacy & compulsory abstinence from meat. - "Now the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils;Speaking lies in hypocrisy; having their conscience seared with a hot iron; Forbidding to marry, [and commanding] to abstain from meats, which God hath created to be received with thanksgiving of them which believe and know the truth."

“Catholics must practice self-denial on Fridays, either by abstinence from flesh or some other penance of their choosing...Special rules apply in Lent: fasting from food on Ash Wednesday and Good Friday...and compulsory abstinence from meat on all six Fridays...” Catholic Family Catechism, B.J.H. Tierney, p170

“The Pope’s forbidding matrimony, and to eat of meats created of God for man’s use, which is devilish doctrine by Paul’s prophecy...are tokens good enough that he is the right antichrist, and his doctrine is sprung of the devil.” Tyndale [1484-1536, First translator of the Bible from the Greek, Tyndale, An Answer to Sir Thomas More’s Dialogue, in Works, Vol. 3, p171]


This, the pope fulfilled by shewing himself that he is god.

“The Pope is not only the representative of Jesus Christ, but he is Jesus Christ Himself, hidden under veil of the flesh.” The Catholic National, July, 1895.

“The pope is crowned with a triple crown as king of heaven, and earth, and purgatory.” Ferraris' Promptta Bibliotheca, Vol. VI, p 26, article "Papa."

“What only God can do by his omnipotence, the priest can also do...Indeed it is not too much to say that in view of the sublimity of their office the priests are so many Gods.” Dignity and Duties of the Priest, Alphonsus De Liguori, p35.

“Does the Priest truly remit [forgive] sins, or does he only declare they are remitted? The priest does really and truly remit the sin in virtue of the power given him by Christ.” Joseph Deharbe, S.J., A Complete Catechism of the Catholic Religion, p275.

“The Pope is supreme judge of the law of the land...He is the viceregent of Christ, and is not only a priest forever, but is King of kings and Lord of lords.” La Civilta Cattolica, March 18, 1871.

“The Pope is of so great authority and power that he can modify, explain, or interpret even Divine laws...THE POPE CAN MODIFY DIVINE LAW, since his power is not of man, but of God, and he acts in the place of God upon earth.” Lucius Ferraris, “Papa,” art. 2, in Prompta Bibliotheca

"The pope has power to change times, to abrogate [change] laws, and to dispense [do away] with all things, even the precepts of Christ." Decretal, De Translantic Episcop

Papal Rome thus disregards: 1. God (the Father), by breaking His Law.

2. The Desire of women (the Son of God), by doing contrary to His teachings. 3. Any God (the Holy Spirit), by claiming to be the Vicar (representative) of Christ and the only infallible interpreter of Scripture, when the Holy Spirit is Christ invisibly represented and the only infallible Interpreter.

By showing himself that he is God, the King of the North magnifies himself above all.. He is “...that man of sin...Who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshipped; so that he as God sitteth in the temple of God, shewing himself that he is God.” 2 Thess 2:3-4.

The “temple” in which the man of sin would sit as God is the Christian church. The word temple in 2Thess 2:3-4 is “naos” and according to Strong’s means “metaph. the spiritual temple consisting of the saints of all ages joined together by and in Christ.” This definition is in harmony with Scripture: 1Cor 3:16 “Know ye not that ye are the TEMPLE [naos] of God, and [that] the Spirit of God dwelleth in you?”

The King of the North sits among Christians as the Spiritual leader of the Christian Church.


"But in his estate shall he honour the God of forces: and a god whom his fathers knew not shall he honour with gold, and silver, and with precious stones, and pleasant things."

Verse 37 said he regarded no God except himself. The God of forces must therefore be himself. The word “forces” in this verse is from the Hebrew “mauz” which means STRENGTH. The word “Rome‚“ in the New Testament is from the Greek “Rhome” and means “STRENGTH.” In the place of God, the Papacy worships the GOD OF FORCES - the GOD OF ROME, the Pope. The marginal reading of verse 38 says, “ for the Almighty God, IN HIS SEAT he shall honour yea, he shall honour A GOD, whom his fathers knew not.”

Paul called this power the “man of sin” “Who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshipped; so that he as God SITTETH IN THE TEMPLE OF GOD, shewing himself that he is God.”

The temple (Gr. naos) in which he would sit is the Christian church. See Eph 2:21-22 The most frequent translation of "ma‘uzzim" (plural) in the King James Bible is strength. In place of God, who draws by love, the Papal Rome honoured the god of strength or force using the civil powers to enforce compliance.


Papal Wealth.

Claiming to hold the keys to heaven or hell, Rome has had a captivating control over kings and nations. Revelation 17:4 speaks of the whore of Babylon who fornicates with the kings of the earth and is decked in GOLD, PRECIOUS STONES and PEARLS.


"Thus shall he do in the most strong holds with a strange god, whom he shall acknowledge [and] increase with glory: and he shall cause them to rule over many, and shall divide the land for gain."

- Papal Rome has gradually increased the place of Mary glorifying her to the level of a god. -

- She is venerated and bowed before which is sinful (Exo 20:5).

- She is prayed to

- She is called the mediator between God & man which is error (1Tim 2:5).

- She has become the dispenser of the graces of Christ which is error (1Cor 12:11).

- Rome claims Mary was immaculately conceived & free from sin which is error (Luke 1:47).

- She is considered co-redeemer with Christ!


Who is the “them”? The last plurality mentioned was "the most strongholds" - those who did Rome's bidding. The papacy arranged affairs such that those powers who supported the church were themselves upheld by the church. Those who resisted her became the subject of invasions sanctioned by Rome who promised much of the spoils to the invading forces.

Thus the succession of Popes increased in glory, wealth and power in the most strong holds, or leading cities of the nations.


Wealthy dioceses and archdioceses offered opportunity for personal gain and self-aggrandizement. These were obtained by those who promised to pay their Church