King Of The North

Updated: Jan 3

The King Of The North is Papal Rome


The King of the North of Daniel 11 has been a contentious subject among SDAs ever since Uriah Smith spoke and published on it in the 1800’s. Prior to Smith, it was believed Papal Rome was the King of the North (KON) and was “evidently the majority view in those earlier years”. “The pioneers of this movement (the SDA Church) were for the first twenty-five or thirty years of our history unanimous in stating that Papal Rome is the power referred to by the prophet Daniel in these verses. No other conclusion could be reached after a careful study of the literature  of the church during this period.” Ministry Magazine, March, 1954, p. 22. But the evidence is lacking on this point and so we must go the Scriptures to settle this matter. Since Smith et al, (Jones, Haskell, Waggoner, Loughborough etc) the Turkey view, with Islam piggy-backing on it in modern times, took a hold and has been see-sawing with the Papal Rome view among the brethren ever since. 


It is strange that the early SDAs knew the Ottoman empire and Turkey had prophetically come to its end in the 1840s yet Smith had a massive disconnect in not using Miller’s rules of interpretation and going with the view that Turkey was [in the future] to plant its tabernacles (Dan 11:45) in Jerusalem and then come to its end, …. a second time?


There are three interpretations according to the literal Turkey view of the phrase, “plant the tabernacles of his palace”, including Turkey moving its capital to Jerusalem, Islam making Jerusalem its capital and finally the planting of the Dome of the Rock & the Al Aqsa mosque in Jerusalem. 


The pendulum swung back to the Papal view with the position that this was the original pioneer view and a “landmark” belief which had been almost lost sight of? There has been a resurgence of the Turkey / Islam position as a result of global terrorism. This view is based on a literal rendition of Daniel 11 without due consideration of the fact that every prophecy in the Book of Daniel [chapters 2,7 & 8] commences with literal local kingdoms and end with the transition of Imperial Rome to Papal Rome, a spiritual global power.


Furthermore, the advocate of the literal Turkey view, prefers Islam as the King of the North which is a contradictory position because Islam is not a literal place, north of literal Jerusalem but a global religion / ideology much like Papal Rome.


Two other points are often overlooked. Firstly, the King of the North figures in Daniel chapter 2 and with the transition in that chapter from Pagan Rome (legs of iron) to Papal Rome (feet of Iron & Clay), one can clearly identify Papal Rome as the King of the North in Daniel 2 - see later. Secondly, Daniel chapter 8 is the last prophecy containing symbols (Ram, He-Goat, Little Horn, “2300 days”). Daniel chapters 9,10, 11 & part of 12 are explanations of the VISION of Daniel 8. The angel Gabriel’s explanation in Daniel 11 can be seen to remain strictly within the confines and sequence of the Daniel 8 vision. There is a consistency in the prophecies of Daniel chapters 2,7 and 8 and Gabriel’s explanation in Daniel 11 of the contents of the VISION of Daniel 8 commencing with the worldly kingdoms of Medo-Persia, Grecia, Imperial Rome, Papal Rome and then the Judgment in Daniel 12:1.  See the comparison between Daniel 8 & 11 below. There is no Turkey, leave alone Islam after Papal Rome, only the judgment. 



Overview

Daniel 11 traces the history of nations through to the final conflict when the world, united under apostate Christianity, goes forth to persecute God’s commandment-keeping people. The collapse of the atheistic powers and the ascendency of Papal Rome are here foretold. This prophecy is being fulfilled before our eyes...


In Daniel chapter 2, a metal MAN represented the four great earthly kingdoms to have especially affected God’s people. The little horn power of Daniel 7 (Papal Rome) which persecutes God's people has the "eyes" of a man and the "mouth" of a man. This same power is brought to light in the Beast of Rev 13 where his number is said to be the number of a man and the number is related to the name of the man. 


Daniel chapter 11 covers the same outline of history as Daniel chapters 2, 7 and 8 and describes the MEN who reigned in those kingdoms. The vision begins in the days of Medo-Persia as Babylon had passed away by the time the vision of Daniel 8 was given. There is a transition in the prophecies from a local and literal fulfilment to a more spiritual and global application.  This chapter focuses on the battles between the Kings of the North and South and the final battle and victory of the King of the North in verse 40 and his subsequent demise in verse 45. 

Note the transition in Daniel chapter 2 from Imperial ROME (legs of IRON) to a more spiritual / religious power, PAPAL ROME, the Rome of the Popes (feet of IRON & CLAY of the Daniel 2 image). See the DREAM

Similarly in Daniel 7, the fourth beast is the fourth kingdom of Daniel 2 - ROME. This transitions to the more spiritual Little Horn power growing out of the head of the same Roman beast and representing the religio-political system of Papal Rome.

In Daniel chapter 8, the Little horn symbolises both Imperial ROME and Papal ROME. The last earthly power in Daniel 2, 7, 8 is Rome. It is not surprising that with this pattern of repetition that the last power in Daniel 11 is also Rome - Papal Rome, symbolised by the King of the North. See at the end as to why Turkey / Islam is not the King of the North of Bible Prophecy.

Furthermore, Revelation chapter 11 adds more detail on the rise of the modern day King of the South (Atheism - spiritually Egypt) and its attack on the the scriptures which in reality was an attack on the King of the North (Papal Rome) delivering Rome its deadly wound as prophesied in Daniel 11:40.


While students of Bible prophecy often take the position that there are four great lines of prophecy in the Book of Daniel in chapters 2, 7, 8 and 11, in reality there are only three symbolic chapters in Daniel, chapters 2, 7 and 8 with Daniel 11 being a detailed explanation of the vision of chapter 8.


In Daniel 2, King Nebuchadnezzar’s Babylon is identified as the Head of Gold. None of the other kingdoms of the great image are identified in chapter 2.  We are told in verse 39 that another kingdom would arise after Babylon. This we find in Daniel chapter 5 with the fall of Babylon to the Medes & Persians – verses 24 to 31. Furthermore, Daniel told King Nebuchadnezzar there was to be a third and a fourth kingdom which were not identified in chapter 2.


Daniel 7 presents the same prophetic outline as Daniel 2 but in the form of four beasts with the focus mainly on the little horn power, the judgment and the judgment given in favor of the saints. This sequence is found three times in Daniel 7 – the little horn rises, the judgment is sat and the judgment is given in favor of God’s people, the saints. Daniel 7 connects to Daniel 2 through verse 23 where it is said that “the fourth beast is the fourth kingdom on earth.”  Therefore, if one can identify the kingdoms of Daniel 2, then the identity of the beasts of Daniel 7 will naturally unravel.  What power is the fourth kingdom of the great image of Daniel 2? Daniel chapter 8 comes to our aid. Daniel 8 commences with the Medes & Persians (the Ram with two horns) which is conquered by the Grecian He-Goat. Here we have kingdoms two and three, Medo-Persia and Grecia, of the Daniel 2 image. The third kingdom, Grecia, divides into four kingdoms at the death of its mighty king, Alexander the Great. Following this we see the fourth kingdom, the little horn, arise and is said to be “exceeding great”, much greater than Alexander’s Grecia which was said to be “very great” and Medo-Persia which was described only as “great” – Daniel 8.


The characteristics of the little horn of Daniel 8 which followed the Grecian kingdom points to Rome in its two phases, pagan and papal as the fourth kingdom of Daniel 2. Verses 9-13 of Daniel 8 as a result of some interesting linguistics takes in both these powers. Note in Daniel 2 that the symbol of iron of the legs (fourth kingdom) extends to the feet. Therefore, the legs and the feet symbolize one and the same kingdom but with an interesting twist in that CLAY is added to the iron in the feet – i.e. the same power as in the legs mixed with clay. In other words, [pagan] Rome mixed with clay. The little horn power of Daniel 8 is said to have “waxed exceeding great…toward the pleasant land” – verse 9. The pleasant land is here symbolic of Palestine. Pagan Rome conquered Palestine.  The little horn of Daniel 8, therefore, firstly represents pagan Rome, the fourth kingdom after Grecia. The legs of iron represent Rome, therefore, the feet of iron must also represent Rome. But what sort of Rome? It is Rome mixed with clay. Clay is representative of religion, a symbol of people (clay – Isaiah 64:8, Jer 16:8) in connection with their God (the potter), a symbol of not just any religion but the religion of a people professing the Bible, a religion mixed with the paganism of Imperial Rome, an apostate christian religion. There is only one religion which is said to be of Rome or Roman (Legs and feet of iron) and professing christianity, the religion of the Bible (clay) – the religion headed by Papal Rome. Hence the feet of Iron and Clay represents the fourth kingdom, Rome, in its Papal phase. The fourth kingdom, Rome, presently exists in that gigantic system of Roman Catholicism with the Pope, Pontifex Maximus, like Caesar, at its head.


In Daniel 2 we see the transition from literal Pagan Rome to Papal Rome, a spiritual Rome, no more confined to a literal location but a global and spiritual entity. This is also seen in Daniel 7 in the symbol of the fourth beast (Pagan Rome) transitioning to the little horn (Papal Rome). This is again observed in Daniel 8 where the one symbol of the little horn is used to represent that power which rose after the Grecian empire, Pagan Rome which overtook the pleasant land, transitioning to Papal Rome in the same symbol as was the case of the Iron in Daniel 2 representing both pagan Rome (the legs of the image) and Papal Rome [with the clay added to the feet of iron]. 


All the symbolic prophecies demonstrate a local literal fulfilment up to the Pagan Rome Empire of the Caesars which then transition to the global spiritual kingdom of Papal Rome. This is the point missed by those who adopt a literal interpretation of Daniel 11.


In Daniel 8 we have the Ram, the He-Goat, the Little Horn, the 2300 days prophecy representing, Medo-Persia, Grecia, Pagan Rome, Papal Rome (vs 13) and then the Judgment. This is the Vision of Daniel 8:1-14. This sequence is what is explained by the angel Gabriel in Daniel 9, 10, 11 through to 12:1. There is no Turkey or Islam prior to the judgment in Daniel 8. Hence one can expect the same in Gabriel’s explanation in Daniel 9 through to 12:1. Turkey and Islam is a false prophecy which will detract from the true close of probation and the deliverance of God’s people.


Those who believe Turkey / Islam is the King of the North will be looking for its literal destruction (Dan 11:45) immediately prior to the close of probation of Daniel 12:1 They will take this as a sign of the close of probation and therefore risk going past the true close of probation (COP) either by not realizing it is a false prophecy or by rejecting the true interpretation, lead many folk astray. There is a consistency in the prophecies of Daniel 2,7,& 8 which cannot be broken.



The Early Years

PAPAL ROME is the KING of verse 36 and NOT Napoleon or France.


Daniel 11:36-45

The last 10 verses of Daniel 11 are the contentious verses, Daniel 11:36 to 45, with verse 36 being the critical verse and verses 37 to 39 providing greater detail of the King of verse 36. The literal view of Daniel 11 falls apart right here as will be shown. 



WILLIAM MILLER and Daniel 11:36,38.

“And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvellous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done.”  


After quoting verse 36 of Daniel 11, William Miller wrote:

“The king here spoken of is the same as Daniel’s little horn, which came up among the ten horns. It is the same that blasphemed the God of heaven. It is mystical Babylon (Isa 14:2-15; Rev 13:5-6). The same Paul described in his epistle, 2Thess 2:19,” William Miller, Evidence from Scripture & Prophecy, p97-98.


After describing verse 38 Miller stated:

“In this passage we have a plain description of the Papacy...must convince every one that the description given must apply to the church of Rome, or the Pope, who claims to exercise this great authority by his crazy title to St. Peters chair…” William Miller, Evidence from Scripture & Prophecy, p 98]



WILLIAM GAGE

“Gage shared the view of James White on the Papacy as the power of the latter part of Daniel 11.


Here is his editorial in the Review of 1867. {1954 LEF, PFF4 1130.1}

"More than two thousand years ago, an inspired prophet of the Lord uttered against a power which should 'magnify himself above every god,' the following prediction: 'Yet he shall come to his end and none shall help him.' Dan. xi, 45. As the seal was removed from the book of Daniel, and knowledge on the prophecies increased, it became evident that the power here referred to could be no other than the Papacy, and the careful student of prophecy has been watching with eager interest the events which mark the fulfillment of this prediction. {1954 LEF, PFF4 1130.2} Gage closes his discussion with the end of the Papacy, which he states is to immediately follow "the entire desertation of the Papal power by the governments of earth." This he states will occur at the time of "the deliverance of God's people when Michael shall stand up." {1954 LEF, PFF4 1130.4}



JAMES WHITE 

 In a General Conference session sermon James White said: {1954 LEF, PFF4 1067.4} 

"There is a line of historic prophecy in chapter eleven, where the symbols are thrown off, beginning with the kings of Persia, and reaching down past Grecia and Rome, to the time when that power 'shall come to his end, and none shall help him.' If the feet and ten toes of the metallic image are Roman, if the beast with ten horns that was given to the burning flames of the great day be the Roman beast, if the little horn which stood up against the Prince of princes be Rome, and if the same field and distance are covered by these four prophetic chains, then the last power of the eleventh chapter, which is to 'come to his end and none shall help him,' is Rome. But if this be Turkey, as some then the toes of the image of the second chapter are Turkish, the beast with ten horns of the seventh chapter represents Turkey, and it was Turkey that stood up against the Prince of princes of the eighth chapter of Daniel. True, Turkey is bad enough off; but its waning power and its end is the subject of the prophecy of John and not of Daniel." 22 {1954 LEF, PFF4 1067.5}


“Does the eleventh chapter of the prophecy of Daniel cover the ground measured by chapters two, seven, and eight? If so, then the last power in that chapter is Rome." James White, Signs of the Times, July 22, 1880; Also R&H, Nov. 29,

1877.


JAMES WHITE 

Some History: “A Word to the Little Flock”

 After quoting Daniel 12:1, “This last power that treads down the saints is brought to view in Rev. 13:11-18. His number is 666.”  A  Word to the Little Flock, pg 9. 

“A Word to the Little Flock” was co-authored by James White, Ellen White & Joseph Bates. Ellen White would have been well aware of her husbands views on the King of the North. She stated the following:


Note what is said above: “Much of the history that has taken place in fulfillment of this prophecy will be repeated”.  Verses 30-36 is then quoted. Therefore, events connected with verses 30-36 have taken place in the past. The events connected with Daniel 11:30-36 deal with the kingdom of Rome, its transition to papal Rome in verse 31 and the persecution of God’s people in verses 32 to 35 by the King of verse 36. Much of this history will be repeated. 

Verse 36 has nothing to do with Napoleon or France and everything to do with Rome. Note the following: 


ELLEN WHITE and Daniel 11:36

Daniel 11:36 “And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvellous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done.”  

“This compromise between paganism and Christianity resulted in the development of "the man of sin" foretold in prophecy as opposing and exalting himself above God. That gigantic system of false religion is a masterpiece of Satan's power--a monument of his efforts to seat himself upon the throne to rule the earth according to his will.”  {Great Controversy 50.1}

The connection between Daniel 11:36 and the above quote from Great Controversy and Manuscript Releases, p394 is obvious. 


ELLEN WHITE and Daniel 11:36

Furthermore, the power which changes God’s seventh day Sabbath is the power identified in prophecy as exalting or magnifying itself above God. This power is identified by Paul in 2Thessalonians and by Daniel in 11:36. That power is Papal Rome and not France or Napoleon.

“The prophet Daniel declared that the Roman Church, symbolized by the little horn, was to think to change times and laws, [Daniel 7:25.] while Paul styled it the man of sin, [2 Thessalonians 2:3, 4.] who was to exalt himself above God. Only by changing God's law could the papacy exalt itself above God; whoever should understandingly keep the law as thus changed would be giving supreme honor to that power by which the change was made. Such an act of obedience to papal laws would be a mark of allegiance to the pope in the place of God.” {4SP 279.1}


Needless to say neither France or Napoleon changed God’s Sabbath, Papal Rome did. Papal Rome is the King of verse 36. 


The proponents for the king of verse 36 being Napoleon have no inspiration; Scripture or the Testimonies to back their case.


Furthermore, Ellen White spoke of this gigantic system of false religion (Papal Rome) which would rule the earth “according to his will”. There is no argument that Daniel 11:36 is referring to Papal Rome. Only willful blindness will not allow of it.


“Paganism, while appearing to be vanquished, became the conqueror. Her spirit controlled the church. Her doctrines, ceremonies, and superstitions were incorporated into the faith and worship of the professed followers of Christ.  {GC88 49.2}  This compromise between paganism and Christianity resulted in the development of the “man of sin” foretold in prophecy as opposing and exalting himself above God. That gigantic system of false religion is a masterpiece of Satan's power,—a monument of his efforts to seat himself upon the throne to rule the earth according to his will.”  {GC88 50.1}


Reason will then logically conclude that verses 37 to 39 and even to the first "him" of verse 40 are speaking about the king of verse 36, Papal Rome, and not some other entity – see later for the explanation of these verses.

11:36    And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvellous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done.  

 11:37    Neither shall he regard the God of his fathers, nor the desire of women, nor regard any god: for he shall magnify himself above all.  

 11:38    But in his estate shall he honour the God of forces: and a god whom his fathers knew not shall he honour with gold, and silver, and with precious stones, and pleasant things.  

 11:39    Thus shall he do in the most strong holds with a strange god, whom he shall acknowledge [and] increase with glory: and he shall cause them to rule over many, and shall divide the land for gain.   


Note the connection between the verses:

11:36    And the king shall do according to his will…

11:37    Neither shall he regard…

11:38    But in his estate shall he…

11:39    Thus shall he do….

11.40    And at the time of the end shall the king of the south push at him:

Furthermore Ellen White's commentary on Daniel 11:41 is consistent with the Papal Rome view of the King of the North and NOT the Turkey view.


She stated: “September 23, the Lord showed me that He had stretched out His hand the second time to recover the remnant of His people, and that efforts must be doubled in this gathering time.” EW 74.


How do Edom, Maob and the chief of the children of Ammon escape out of the hand of the King of the North, in this case the Papacy?  Daniel is referring back to Isaiah and Edom, Moab and Ammon is used figuratively to represent those who escape out of the hand of Papal Rome by accepting the good tidings of the gospel, the three angels messages... and "come out of her my people".



The King of the North in Daniel Chapter 2


The Book of Daniel begins in chapter 1:1 with the literal King of the North attacking literal Jerusalem and ends with the spiritual King of the North attacking spiritual Jerusalem (God’s church) and coming to its end in chapter 11:45. Babylon was the literal King of the North which attacked literal Jerusalem, the place of God’s people. Babylon figures prominently in the book of Revelation where Babylon is here understood to be taken in a figurative sense and not literally.

Daniel 1:1 – “In the third year of the reign of Jehoiakim king of Judah came Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon unto Jerusalem, and besieged it.”

Because God’s people had been disobedient, constantly breaking His commandments, the Lord permitted literal Babylon to conquer them (606-605BC). God passed sentence on the last king of Judah, “Thus saith the Lord GOD; Remove the diadem, and take off the crown...I will overturn, overturn, overturn, it: and it shall be no more, until he come [Christ] whose right it is; and I will give it him.” Ezekiel 21:26-27.

The book of Daniel traces how the dominions were “overturned” successively - Babylon to Persia, then to Greece, then to Rome. Each empire would demonstrate its principles and each would prove itself unworthy of dominion. Christ came to our world 2000 years ago but the diadem was not restored at that coming. Finally, the judgment occurs and Christ alone is seen to be worthy to rule, then He “whose right it is” takes the throne. Throughout all, God is seen behind the scenes guarding the destiny of His people and working out His own will so that sin will never rise again. Jeremiah the prophet foretold that God’s people would serve the king of Babylon 70 years (2 Kings 20:17-18; Jer 25:3,9-11). In three raids, the last being in 586BC, Jerusalem and its sanctuary were destroyed.

Note: 

Jeremiah 1:14 “Then the LORD said unto me, Out of the north an evil shall break forth upon all the inhabitants of the land.”

Jeremiah 6:22 Thus saith the LORD, Behold, a people cometh from the north country, and a great nation shall be raised from the sides of the earth.  They shall lay hold on bow and spear; they are cruel, and have no mercy; their voice roareth like the sea; and they ride upon horses, set in array as men for war against thee, O daughter of Zion.

In Eze 26:7 the Lord identifies Nebuchadnezzar here known as Nebuchadrezzar as the literal king of the North. “For thus saith the Lord GOD; Behold, I will bring upon Tyrus Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon, a king of kings, from the north, with horses, and with chariots, and with horsemen, and companies, and much people.”

According to scripture Babylon is the King of the North. It is so because when Babylon attacked Jerusalem it came by way of the North. The King of the North (KON) is, therefore, another name for Babylon. In Daniel 2, Babylon, the King of the North is overtaken by Medo-Persia, then Grecia and Imperial Rome. Imperial Rome then transitions to Papal Rome in the feet of Iron & Clay.

But Papal Rome is also known by another name in Revelation 17 – “Babylon the Great”: Rev 17:5 “And upon her forehead was a name written, MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH.” Therefore, in Daniel 2, literal Babylon the head of Gold and the literal King of the North gives way to spiritual Babylon, the feet of Iron & Clay. The feet of Iron & Clay representing the mingling of Church craft and State craft – the union of Church & State as seen in the global system of Papal Rome. With the transition from literal local Pagan Rome in the legs of iron to a more global spiritual Papal Rome, then consistency in interpretation demands that Papal Rome is also the King of the North. Babylon or the King of the North is no longer confined to a literal geographic location as was Nebuchadnezzar’s kingdom but is now a global system. This pattern in the prophecy is set here in Daniel 2 and continued in Daniel chapters 7 & 8, a change from a literal and local power to a global and spiritual one.  This is also the case in Daniel 11.

LITERAL BABYLON (HEAD OF GOLD), LITERAL KING OF THE NORTH => SPIRITUAL BABYLON (FEET OF IRON & CLAY), PAPAL ROME, SPIRITUAL KING OF THE NORTH.

The point is, here in Daniel 2, we have a clear transition from literal Babylon (head of Gold), the literal King of the North to spiritual “Babylon the Great” (feet of Iron and Clay), a global entity, no more confined to the literal geography of the Middle East. Hence from our present day perspective, Papal Rome in Daniel 2, being Spiritual Babylon, takes on the title of the spiritual King of the North, long before the angel Gabriel comes to explain the vision of Daniel 8 in Daniel 11.

The Book of Daniel, therefore, commences with literal Babylon and ends with Spiritual Babylon. It commences with the literal King of the North in Daniel 1:1 and ends with the Spiritual King of the North in Daniel 11:45. It is in the framework of Daniel 2 that all interpretations must fit. The stone strikes the feet of iron and clay in Daniel 2. There is no other earthly power beyond Papal Rome in Daniel 2. It is in this context and in the context of the VISION of Daniel 8 as explained by the Angel Gabriel in Daniel 9,10 & 11 that we see no place for Turkey or Islam, after Papal Rome.

There is nothing beyond Papal Rome. The literal Turkey view tries to introduce a new power after Papal Rome in verses 36 to 39 (Napoleon / France) in order to formulate a triangular war in verse 40. Opponents of the Papal view agree that verse 36 is Rome but somehow disconnect this verse from verses 37 to 39 and interpret verses 37 to 39 as Napoleon with no scriptural or Spirit of prophecy basis for it. Verses 37 to 39 and even 40 hang off verse 36 describing in greater detail the King of verse 36, Papal Rome.  This is the Achilles heel of the literal Turkey / Islam view and like Achilles only death awaits this interpretation.

“The prophecy in the eleventh of Daniel has nearly reached its complete fulfillment. Much of the history that has taken place in fulfillment of this prophecy will be repeated. In the thirtieth verse A POWER is spoken of that “shall be grieved, and return, and have indignation against the holy covenant: so shall he do; he shall even return, and have intelligence with them that forsake the holy covenant.” [Verses 31-36, quoted.]” E.G. White, 13 Manuscript Releases, p394.




The Vision of Daniel 8


The vision of Daniel 8 is critical when interpreting chapters 2 & 7 and especially when considering chapters 9, 10 & 11. These latter chapters are a continued explanation of that vision.  Chapter 8 is the last symbolic prophecy in the Book of Daniel.

The vision of Daniel 8:1-14 contain the following symbols:

Ram

He-Goat

Little Horn

2300 days


It is important to note that the angel Gabriel stays strictly within the confines of the vision of Daniel 8 when explaining the meaning of the vision in chapter 11.  The point is, there is nothing in the Vision of Daniel 8 which would suggest one introduce a power such as Turkey or Islam in the Daniel 11 explanation.


The Vision of Daniel 8

Gabriel is told to make Daniel understand the vision. Gabriel commences the explanation in Daniel 8:16,17 and continues this through to Daniel 11: “And I heard a man's voice between the banks of Ulai, which called, and said, Gabriel, make this man to understand the vision. So he came near where I stood: and when he came, I was afraid, and fell upon my face: but he said unto me, Understand, O son of man: for at the time of the end shall be the vision.”


The vision was partly explained in Dan 8:20-26. Daniel was, however, unwell and the explanation had to be interrupted - Daniel 8:27


Gabriel then returns and continues the explanation of the Vision in chapter 9:21-23 with the following admonition: “Yea, whiles I was speaking in prayer, even the man Gabriel, whom I had seen in the vision at the beginning, being caused to fly swiftly, touched me about the time of the evening oblation. And he informed me, and talked with me, and said, O Daniel, I am now come forth to give thee skill and understanding. At the beginning of thy supplications the commandment came forth, and I am come to shew thee; for thou art greatly beloved: therefore understand the matter, and consider the vision.


Gabriel tells Daniel to "consider the vision. What vision? The vision of Daniel 8 and Gabriel commences with the time portion of the vision - Dan 9:24-27.


Gabriel then returns in chapter 10:14 and says: “Now I am come to make thee understand what shall befall thy people in the latter days: for yet the vision is for many days.” Notice Gabriel says, “what shall befall thy people in the latter days”. Daniel 11 was not given to explain what would befall Turkey or Islam but “thy people in the latter days”.


Finally Gabriel returns in Daniel 11:2 and commences the full explanation of the Vision commencing as he did in chapter 8 with the Medo-Persian Empire - “And now will I shew thee the truth. Behold, there shall stand up yet three kings in Persia; and the fourth shall be far richer than they all: and by his strength through his riches he shall stir up all against the realm of Grecia.”, Gabriel gives a detailed explanation of the vision going over the same ground covered in Daniel 8:1-14 with the sequence of Medo-Persia, Grecia, Pagan Rome, Papal Rome and then the judgment, (Dan 12:1) exactly as outlined in the VISION of Daniel 8, hence for that reason Daniel 8 and 11 have the same starting points - see table below.


The point is, nowhere in the VISION of Daniel 8:1-14 is there a power such as Turkey or Islam COMING AFTER Papal Rome. Hence, whatever one’s apprehension is concerning the Papal view, one will have to contend with Gabriel’s explanation of the VISION in its sequence and resolve any misinterpretation / mis-understanding one might have concerning verses 36 to 45 because there is no Turkey after Rome in Daniel 8. Gabriel’s explanation stuck to the sequence revealed to Daniel in the vision of Daniel 8:1-14.


Comparison of Daniel 8 and 11 sees the latter as an explanation of Daniel 8.




Daniel 11:1-4 Four Persian Kings & a Mighty Grecian King

Medo-Persia - Xerxes


11:1  Also I in the first year of Darius the Mede, [even] I, stood to confirm and to strengthen him. 

11:2  And now will I show thee the truth. Behold, there shall stand up yet three kings in Persia; and the fourth shall be far richer than [they] all: and by his strength through his riches he shall stir up all against the realm of Grecia.

11:3  And a mighty king shall stand up, that shall rule with great dominion, and do according to his will. 

11:4  And when he shall stand up, his kingdom shall be broken, and shall be divided toward the four winds of heaven; and not to his posterity, nor according to his dominion which he ruled: for his kingdom shall be plucked up, even for others beside those.  


For 21 days (the exact same period of Daniel's fast, Dan 10:2) the Prince of Persia had withstood the angel Gabriel. The Prince of Persia is Cyrus, who was to do his part in helping God's people rebuild the temple at Jerusalem.  Israel’s seventy years of captivity in Babylon ended in 536BC when Cyrus passed a decree allowing the Jews to return to Jerusalem and rebuild their sanctuary. (Ezra 1:1-4; 6:3-5).  The Samaritans then spread false reports that almost persuaded the Persian king to stop the rebuilding. (See Ezra 4:5; Dan 9:25). Daniel, distressed at these events began his prayer and fasting which lasted the exact same period Gabriel and Michael were contending with the Prince of Persia – Daniel 10:1-3 and here in Daniel 11, Gabriel “now” appears to him to help him understand. Gabriel told Daniel how he and Michael (See on Dan 12:1) had fought with the supernatural powers of evil in the Persian palace. Having done that, Gabriel says, “And now will I show thee the truth.”....There shall stand up yet three kings in Persia…the fourth shall be far richer than they all:  


The explanation of the vision was again given in the reign of the Persian king Cyrus (Dan 10:1).  Daniel 8 commenced with a Ram having two horns. The Ram is explained to be the Kings of Media and Persia Dan 8:20. Gabriel again commences with Medo-Persia in Daniel 11.


The Persian kings which followed Cyrus were:

1. Cambyses II 530-522BC

2. False Smerdis alias Gaumata. Reigned part of 522BC, and hindered the work of rebuilding the sanctuary in Jerusalem. 

3. Darius I 522-486BC.

4. Xerxes I, the Great, (486-475BC. This is the Ahasuerus of Est 1:1-7). He was “richer than all” and with his wealth he raised a huge army intending to conquer Greece. His defeat was a turning point in world power. Attention moved to Greece...


And the fourth shall be far richer than they all: the fourth king, Xerxes I, the Great, alias Ahasuerus of Est 1:1-7


And by his strength through his riches he shall stir up all against the realm of Grecia: Pythius, a Lydian, offered to help fund Xerxes’ invasion of Grecia. Upon asking who this man was, Xerxes received this reply: “...he is, next to yourself, the richest man of whom we have any knowledge.” Heredotus, book 7, sec 27, Loeb Classical Library, p343. cf. Est 1:4-7.


In 480 B.C. Xerxes assembled a mighty army to push Persian dominion into Europe: “Xerxes dealt with mustering of his army, searching out every part of the continent...For what nation did not Xerxes lead...against Hellas? [Greece]”  Heredotus, book 7, sec. 19, 21, trans. by A.D. Godley, Loeb Classical Library, p333-5. But incredibly the Greeks defeated the Persians and though other Persian kings followed, Persia from Xerxes’ time began to decline in power. “The wreck of Xerxes expedition is

the turning point in the history of the Persian empire...The centre of gravity in the world’s history had shifted from Susa and


Babylon [the main cities of the Persian Empire] to the Aegean Sea [Greece].” Encyclopaedia Britannica, (11th ed. 1911), Vol. 21, p211, art. Persia.


Scripture recognizes this shift in power and skips the intervening Persian kings moving directly to the rise of the next empire Greece, and it first king Alexander the Great, 336-323BC. An alternative translation reads, “He shall rouse all the realm of Greece.” This would indicate that the failed invasion from Persia brought the victorious Greek states a sense of unity previously unknown. If this is the best translation it forms a natural transition to the next verse.


Verses 3-4

"And a mighty king shall stand up, that shall rule with great dominion, and do according to his will.

And when he shall stand up, his kingdom shall be broken, and shall be divided toward the four winds of heaven; and not to his posterity, nor according to his dominion which he ruled: for his kingdom shall be plucked up, even for others beside those.




GRECIA - ALEXANDER the GREAT


In the Daniel 8 vision, the mighty He-Goat crushes the Ram, stamps upon him and breaks its horns so that there was no power left in the Ram. Daniel 11 naturally follows with the mighty Grecian King, Alexander the Great. The prince of Grecia follows the prince of Persia in prophecy - Daniel 10:20.


A mighty king: Alexander the Great, king of Greece.

Shall stand up: Come to power.

According to his will: Have the dominion.

Broken: Alexander the great was the mighty king who ruled with great dominion but died at the height of his power.  See Daniel 8:8, Great horn broken - Alexander's death.

Divided toward the 4 winds: After Alexander’s death the kingdom of Grecia was divided, north, south, east and west, not among his children [not to his posterity,] but among four of his generals (Parallels the four horns on the Grecian He-Goat - Dan 8:8, 22). Alexander’s young son was murdered and Alexander’s generals took upon themselves the titles and styles of kings. See Diadorus, Book 19, sec 105, Loeb Classical Library, p119

1. Cassander in Macedonia       

2. Lysimachus in Thrace      

3. Ptolemy in Egypt

4. Seleucus in Syria and Asia minor

The four kingdoms finally resolved itself into two territories governed by the Seleucids in the north and the Ptolomies in the South, known as the King of the North and the King of the South respectively. For 150 years these powers fought each other in the Syrian-Egyptian wars - verses 5-15.  About 35 years after the death of Seleucus 1 a notable marriage alliance took place (vs 6) which failed to bring peace.


History records the accurate fulfilment of the continuing conflicts between the Seleucids and the Ptolomies. 


Nor according to his dominion which he ruled: Each division was weaker than the whole kingdom. The Grecian kingdom finally resolved itself into two major kingdoms – the Seleucids toward the North based in Syria and the Ptolemies in Egypt, South of Jerusalem. The Seleucids by far occupied a greater territory than the Ptolemies. These two kings are known respectively as the King of the North and the King of the South.




Daniel 5 –15 The Grecian Kings of the North and South do battle


Verse 5

And the king of the south [Ptolemy 1 Soter 305-283BC, of Egypt.

The directions; North, South etc. are reckoned from Jerusalem for God said “...this [is] Jerusalem: I have set it in the midst of the nations and countries [that are] around her.” Eze 5:5. The capital cities of the northern & southern kingdoms were not literally North & South of Jerusalem. The reason they were called north & south is because it was from these directions that they invaded Israel. See map] shall be strong, and one of his [one of Ptolemy’s] princes [Seleucus Nicator, 305-281BC, who was one of Ptolemy’s general for some time. See Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ed., Vol. 10, p618, art. Seleucus I]; and he [Seleucus] shall be strong above him [above Ptolemy], and have dominion; his dominion shall be a great dominion [the Seleucid empire eventually overan all the territories becoming the kingdom of the NORTH and forming by far the greatest of the divisions. “Seleucus ruled from the Mediterranean to the Indus...having a territory 5 to 6 times as large as that of Ptolemy. His dominion was emphatically a great dominion.” Egypt and Babylon, p207].


Verse 6

And in the end of years they [the Kingdoms of the North & South] shall join themselves  together [to solidify peace]; for the king's daughter of the south [Berenice, the daughter of Ptolemy II Philadelphus] shall come to the king of the north [Antiochus II Theos, 261-246BC] to make an agreement [to marry to solidify peace. In order to marry Berenice, Antiochus divorced his wife Laodice and debarred her children from succession to the throne]: but she [Berenice] shall not retain the power of the arm [Antiochus later divorced Berenice and took back Laodice]; neither shall he [Antiochus] stand [Antiochus died suddenly, probably poisoned by Laodice to ensure that her children would take the throne], nor his arm [some read, “his seed” referring to his children by Berenice]: but she [Berenice] shall be given up [divorced], and they that brought her [Berenice’s maids], and he that begat her [a vowel change would make this read, “her child” as in the R.S.V, who was murdered], and he that strengthened her in these times [probably Antiochus. See Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ed., Vol. 10, p618, art. Seleucus II.

“Halfway through this century (249 BC.) the desultory warefare between Egypt and the Seleucid power came to a temporary end (Daniel 11:6). Ptolemy II, Philadelphus, gave his daughter Berenice with a great dowry to Antiochus II, Theos. When Ptolemy died (247 BC.) Antiochus’ divorced wife Laodice was restored to favor, and Antiochus died suddenly [poisoned by Laodice] in order that she might regain her power. Berenice and her son were likewise removed from the path of her son Seleucus...the new king of Egypt, Ptolemy III, Euergetes I,  invaded the Seleucid territory, ‘entered the fortress of the  king of the north’ (Dan 11:7 sqq.), and returned - laden with the spoils, images captured from Egypt by Cambyses, and  captives (Jerome on Daniel loc. cit.) - to put down a domestic rebellion.” Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Ed., art. Palestine].



The King of the South attacks the King of the North to avenge his sister.


11:7  But out of a branch of her roots shall [one] stand up in his estate, which shall come with an army, and shall enter into the fortress of the king of the north, and shall deal against them, and shall prevail: 

11:8  And shall also carry captives into Egypt their gods, with their princes, [and] with their precious vessels of silver and of gold; and he shall continue [more] years than the king of the north. 

11:9  So the king of the south shall come into [his] kingdom, and shall return into his own land.  

Verse 7

But out of a branch of her roots [from Berenice’s family]  shall one [her brother, Ptolemy III Euregetes] stand up in his estate [in the place of his father, Ptolemy Philadelphus], which shall come with an army, and shall enter into the  fortress of the king of the north [Ptolemy III attacked Laodice’s son, Seleucus II Callinicus, 246-226], and shall deal against them, and shall prevail [Ptolemy III was victorious over Seleucus II]:

Verse 8

And shall also carry captives into Egypt [the fact that the king of the south carried the spoils of war  to Egypt confirms that Egypt was the kingdom / King of the south] their gods, with their princes,  and with their precious vessels of silver and of gold [The Decree of Canopus (239/238B.C.) states in  praise of Ptolemy III: “‘And the sacred images carried off from the land of the Persians, the king  having made a foreign campaign, recovered into Egypt, and restored to the temples from which  each of them had been carried away.’” translation in J.P. Hahaffy, A History of Egypt Under the

Ptolemaic Dynasty [New York: Charles Scribner’s & Sons, 1889], p113]; and he shall continue more years than the king of the north [Literally, “he shall refrain from attacking the king of the north.” RSV. The KJV translation is possible but the fact that Ptolemy III outlived Seleucus II by 2 years  seems a very minor point to be noted in the prophecy].

Verse 9

So the king of the south shall come into his kingdom, and shall return into his own land [Thus  verses 8-9 together show that the kingdom of the South is Egypt].




The King of the North attacks the King of the South


Verse 10

But his [Seleucus II, the king of the North] sons [Seleucus III Ceranus Soter, who was murdered after a short reign, & Antiochus III Magnus (the Great)] shall be stirred up, and shall assemble a multitude of great forces: and one [Antiochus III Great] shall certainly come, and overflow, and pass through [In 219BC he retook much from his rival Ptolemy]: then shall he return, and be stirred up, even to his fortress.


The King of the South moved with anger (choler) attacks the King of the North


Verse 11

And the king of the south [Ptolemy IV Philopater] shall be moved with choler [anger], and shall come forth and fight with him, even with the king of the north [Antiochus III]: and he [Antiochus III, king of the north] shall set forth a great multitude [62,000 infantry, 6000 cavalry, 102 elephants (Polybius, Histories, v. 79)]; but the multitude shall be given into his [Ptolemy IV’s] hand [Ptolemy IV was victorious at the battle of Raphia, 217 B.C. AntiochusIII is reputed to have lost 10,000 infantry and 300 cavalry, plus 4000 prisoners. The verse demonstrates Hebrew inverted parallelism which arranges the subjects in an ABBA pattern].

Verse 12

And when he [Ptolemy IV] hath taken away the multitude, his heart shall be lifted up [When in Jerusalem he attempted to enter the most holy place but the Jews withstood him. This upset Ptolemy]; and he shall cast down many ten thousands [He slaughtered 40-60,000 Jews in Alexandria]: but he shall not be strengthened by it [Ptolemy IV Philopater did not capitalize on his victory over the north. He died 205 B.C.? and his four-five year old son, Ptolemy V Epiphanes who ruled 204?-180 B.C., took the throne].


Verse 13

For the king of the north [Antiochus III] shall return [Antiochus III saw a child on the Egyptian throne as a good opportunity to attack the South], and shall set forth a multitude greater than the former, and shall certainly come after certain years [literally, “at the end of times, years.” The period is probably the 16 years which passed after the Battle of Raphia before Antiochus’ second campaign against the south] with a great army and with much riches.




Pagan Rome enters the prophetic picture


The power of Imperial Rome is introduced in the prophecy to establish the vision.

11:14     And in those times there shall many stand up against the king of the south: also the robbers of thy people shall exalt themselves to establish the vision; but they shall fall.


11:14 And in those times there shall many stand up against the king of the south [POINT OF DIFFERENCE: At this verse interpretations differ. One group consider that verses 14-45 continue to follow the history of the Seleucid & Ptolemaic kings. Others see that with verse 14, Rome, the next great world empire, enters the prophecy with verses, 31-45 describing the transition from Pagan to Papal Rome. This second view is in harmony with the repeat and enlarge principle seen in Daniel 2, 7 and 8 in which Rome is the last earthly power described. Rome is introduced here in verse 14 to “ESTABLISH THE VISION”  and confirms the accuracy of the vision. 


Philip of Macedon united with Antiochus in planning to attack the south, willing to share the spoils]: also the robbers [Heb. “periyts” - literally BREAKERS or destroyers. Same word used in Ps 17:4. Compare Daniel 7:23 “Thus he said, The fourth beast shall be the fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall be diverse from all kingdoms, and shall DEVOUR the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and BREAK it in pieces.”] of thy people [Rome] shall exalt themselves to establish the vision [ROME ENTERS THE PROPHETIC PICTURE - Rome’s appearance at this point confirms the accuracy of the vision.


Myer’s General History states:

“Syria, or the kingdom of the Selucidae (312-65B.C.).- Under its first rulers this kingdom comprised nominally almost all the countries of Asia conquered by Alexander, thus stretching from the Hellespont to the Indus; but in reality the monarchy embraced only Asia Minor, Syria, and the Old Assyria and Babylonia...but finally the country was overrun by the Roman Legions and was made part of the Roman Republic.” (63B.C.).” Myer’s General History. Thus that which was the kingdom of the North eventually became part of Rome]; but they [the Romans] shall fall [the breakers of God’s people would themselves ultimately be broken. This last statement may be understood parenthetically]. 


Here is an interesting aside: if one were to accept Daniel 11 as a literal explanation of the Daniel 8 vision, then Daniel 8 would have to find some place for the literal King of the North. One could make a case for the view that the Little Horn of Daniel 8 was Antiochus Epiphanes and not Rome. Get the point? Anyway, it’s all messed up, because Antiochus was one of more than 20 Syrian Kings.

Verse 15

So the king of the north [Antiochus III] shall come, and cast up a mount [siegeworks], and take the most fenced [fortified] cities [Sidon and Gaza both fell to Antiochus III]: and the arms [military forces] of the south shall not withstand, neither his chosen people, neither shall there be any strength to withstand [Egypt fell].




ROME conquers North and is the new King of the North.


Verses 16-22

"But he that cometh against him shall do according to his own will, and none shall stand before him: and he shall stand in the glorious land, which by his hand shall be consumed." Daniel 11:16

Verse 7-15 cover many years worth of struggles between the Seleucids in the North and the Ptolemies in the South.

Rome conquers the Northern kingdom and enters the prophetic landscape. He that came against "him" (the Seleucids) was Rome and takes over the mantle of the king of the North. The phrase “do according to his will” is only applied to prophetic superpowers which had dominion over God’s people (cf. Daniel 8:4; 11:3, 36). It is applied to Persia, and Grecia. The only other nation to have such power is Imperial Rome. Rome is here introduced as the next superpower to become the King of the North and continue the tradition of persecuting God’s people. Rome conquered Palestine, the “glorious land” in keeping with Daniel 8:9 in which Rome, the little horn “waxed exceeding great, toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant land, the latter being Palestine. Here we find the fourth Kingdom of the Daniel 2 image - Rome.



ROME - Three CAESARS and CHRIST.

16 But he [Rome] that cometh against him [against Antiochus III] shall do according to his own will [Have power over all. The ancient historian Polybius wrote, “The Romans have subjected to their rule not portions, but nearly the whole of the world.” Polybius, Book 1, sec 2, trans. W.R. Paton, Loeb Classical Library, Vol 1, p7], and none shall stand before him [Rome would conquer all]: and he [Rome] shall stand in the glorious land [Palestine], which by his hand shall be consumed [conquered].


JULIUS CAESAR “SHALL STUMBLE AND FALL”

11:17     He shall also set his face to enter with the strength of his whole kingdom, and upright ones with him; thus shall he do: and he shall give him the daughter of women, corrupting her: but she shall not stand [on his side], neither be for him. 

 11:18    After this shall he turn his face unto the isles, and shall take many: but a prince for his own behalf shall cause the reproach offered by him to cease; without his own reproach he shall cause [it] to turn upon him. 

 11:19    Then he shall turn his face toward the fort of his own land: but he shall stumble and fall, and not be found.  

17 He [Rome] shall also set his face [determine] to enter with the strength of his whole kingdom, and upright ones with him; thus shall he do [literally, “and upright ones with him he shall  make.” ‘Upright ones,’ Heb. yesharim, is taken by some to be equivalent to ‘mesharim,’ - uprightnesses or equities. Mesharim is used in verse 6 of an equitable agreement. If mesharim is correct this may here refer to the fact that when Ptolemy XI, Auletes, died in 51 BC., he placed his children, Cleopatra & Ptolemy XII, under the guardianship of Rome]: and he [Ptolemy XI Auletes, King of the south, Cleopatra’s father] shall give him [give to Rome] the daughter of women [Cleopatra was placed under Roman guardianship in 51 B.C. when her father died. Julius Ceasar invaded Egypt and Cleopatra became his mistress. “Daughter of women” may express her femininity?], corrupting her: but she shall not stand on his side, neither be for him [Cleopatra sought her own political interests. At this time Julius Ceasar, the people’s idol, Pompey, the soldiers idol, and Crassus, the richest man, were seeking power. Crassus was killed in 54 B.C, the Senate won Pompey to them and plotted to destroy Julius Caesar who was becoming too powerful]

 18 After this shall he [Julius Caesar, who had become a successful general, and was seeking to become a dictator] turn his face unto the isles [Sea lands, or sea coasts. War in other parts of the empire drew Julius away from Egypt. Then in 49 B.C. Julius marched on Rome. Pompey and most of the Senate fled. Pompey’s party made a stand in Spain but Julius Caesar finally defeated them on the coastlands of Africa], and shall take many: but a prince [Heb. qatsiyn, a man of authority] for his own behalf shall cause the reproach offered by him to cease; without his own reproach he shall cause it to turn upon him [Obscure meaning possibly “Indeed he [the man of authority, possibly Brutus] shall turn his [Julius’] insolence back on him.” RSV].

 19 Then he [Julius Caesar] shall turn his face toward the fort of his own land [Returned triumphant to Rome where the Senate, to save themselves, began heaping honours on him and declared him a god and dictator for life. The Republic vanished and Julius Caesar became dictator of the Roman world]: but he shall stumble and fall, and not be found [March 15, 44A.D. Julius Caesar was stabbed to death by Brutus and his conspirators of the Roman Senate].


Verse 19 - JULIUS CAESAR

"Then he shall turn his face toward the fort of his own land: but he shall stumble and fall, and not be found."

Julius Caesar stumbled and fell (assassinated in 44BC) when he returned to his own land after military campaigns.



AUGUSTUS CAESAR, THE RAISER OF TAXES.


Verse 20 - AUGUSTUS CAESAR

"Then shall stand up in his estate a raiser of taxes in the glory of the kingdom: but within few days he shall be destroyed, neither in anger, nor in battle."

Augustus Caesar, the raiser of taxes followed and under his taxation decree, Christ was born in Bethlehem (Luke 2:1). Augustus died of illness in AD14 and not in battle.


11:20 Then shall stand up in his [in Julius Caesar’s] estate a raiser of taxes [AUGUSTUS CAESAR - “There went out a decree from Caesar Augustus, that all the world should be taxed...And all went to be taxed, every one into his own city.”  Luke 2:1-3. Augustus followed the advice of his counselor Maecenas, “We ought to levy upon absolutely all instruments which produce any profit...We should exact taxes from all whom we rule...We should set over them tax collectors.” Cassius Dio’s, History of Rome, book 52, chap. 28.  Under this taxation enrolment Joseph & Mary returned to their ancestral home, Bethlehem, where Jesus was born] in the glory of the kingdom [ROME’S MOST GLORIOUS PERIOD Augustus came to power during Rome’s most glorious period. “He could justly boast that he found it built of brick and left it in marble.” Suetonius, Lives of the Caesars, Book 2, sec 28, trans. J.C. Rolfe, Loeb Classical Library, p167

“It was under Augustus that the Roman Empire possessed the GREATEST power abroad, and the HIGHEST cultivation at home. It extended from the Atlantic Ocean to the Euphrates, and from the Danube and  Rhine to the Atlas and the falls of the Niles.” Dr George Weber, Prof. at Heidelberg, Universal History, p102, Brewer & Tileston, Boston, 1853]: but within few days [a few years, relative to the scope of the whole prophecy] he [Augustus] shall be destroyed [die], neither in anger, nor in battle [“In a period of ninety years no fewer than eighty emperors were chosen, many of whom died by violence, slain by rivals contending for the crown or by the army that had chosen them.” Elson, Modern Times and the Living Past, p204. Unlike many emperors Augustus died peacefully in bed in A.D. 14, after a reign of 40 years].




ROME: TIBERIUS THE VILE CAESAR - CHRIST CRUCIFIED


11:21     And in his estate shall stand up a vile person, to whom they shall not give the honour of the kingdom: but he shall come in peaceably, and obtain the kingdom by flatteries. 

 11:22    And with the arms of a flood shall they be overflown from before him, and shall be broken; yea, also the prince of the covenant.  

Verse 21-22 - TIBERIUS CAESAR

"And in his estate shall stand up a vile person, to whom they shall not give the honour of the kingdom: but he shall come in peaceably, and obtain the kingdom by flatteries. And with the arms of a flood shall they be overflown from before him, and shall be broken; yea, also the prince of the covenant."

Tiberius was the vile Caesar when Christ, the “Prince of the covenant,” was crucified in AD31 (cf. Dan 9:24-27). 

11:21 And in his [Augustus] estate shall stand up a vile person [TIBERIUS: Tiberius Caesar A.D. 14  - 37. Suetonius, in “Lives of the Twelve Ceasars,” wrote, “vile” - “Tiberius,” chap. 45.  Tacitus charges Tiberius with “revolting depravity.” Annals, book 6, chap. 51], to whom they shall not give the honour of the kingdom [The people of Rome did not like this eccentric, misunderstood, and unloved person]: but he shall come in peaceably [When Augustus died, Tiberius ascended to the throne peacefully], and obtain the kingdom by flatteries [Tiberius was the only stepson of Augustus. His ascension owed much to the flatteries and maneuvering of his mother Livia].


11:22 And with the arms of a flood [military forces] shall they [enemies of Rome] be overflown from before him [Tiberius led several successful military campaigns in Germany and in the East], and shall be broken [conquered. Here Rome is again pictured as the “breaker.” cf. Dan 11:14; Dan 7:23]; yea, also the prince of the covenant  [CHRIST CRUCIFIED.


The Prince of the covenant is clearly Christ:

(a) The word for “Prince” here is the rare Hebrew word ‘nagid’ which was  used in Dan 9:25 “Messiah the PRINCE.”

(b) Daniel is written using the repeat and enlarge principle, i.e. Daniel’s later prophecies cover that mentioned in his earlier prophecies but add more details. Christ, the Prince of the Covenant was mentioned in Dan 9. Dan 11 is clearly a further reference to Christ adding specifics as to the Caesars who preceded Him and the Caesar in power at the time of His death.

(c) The various rulers mentioned in verses 20-22 and the specific details met a perfect fulfilment in Augustus, Tiberius and Christ. Verse 20 introduced “the raiser of taxes” who died “peacefully.” Augustus, the Caesar at the time of Jesus birth, fulfilled these specifics. Verse 21 introduced his “vile” successor in whose days the “Prince of the Covenant” would die. Tiberius, the Caesar at the time of Christ’s death, fulfils the specifics. The likelihood of all these specific details being fulfilled by any other successive individuals is highly unlikely. The Prince of the Covenant is Christ beyond reasonable doubt.

“Christus, the founder of that name, was put to death as a criminal by Pontius Pilate, procurator of Judea, in the reign of Tiberius.” Tacitus (first century historian), Annals, book 15, chap. 44.

This verse is a waymark in understanding Daniel 11. Having brought us to the death of Jesus which occurred in the 70th week of Daniel 9 (See Daniel 9:24-27) the prophecy now goes back in time and brings us over the same ground adding more details.

This kind of sketching in the picture and then going back over it again with further points is typical of Hebrew thought. e.g. Genesis 1 describes the creation of man & woman on the 6th day. Genesis 2 goes back and describes the creation of Adam and adds that he named the animal kinds prior to the creation of Eve].

Verses 23-28

Having taken us through the secular events of the empire to the death of the Messiah the prophecy takes us back to the time when the Romans became directly connected with the people of God by the Jewish league, in which the Jews requested Roman assistance to deal with Syrian harassment. At this time the Romans were a small people but destined to become exceeding great. Verses 25-28 describe the conflict between Octavius and Mark Anthony. 


11:23 And after the league made with him [in 161 B.C. the Jews entered a league with Rome] he shall work deceitfully: for he shall come up, and shall become strong with a small [little] people [Here the “little horn” - Rome, began to become exceeding great. cf. Dan 8:9].

Verse 24

"He shall enter peaceably even upon the fattest places of the province; and he shall do that which his fathers have not done, nor his fathers' fathers; he shall scatter among them the prey, and spoil, and riches: yea, and he shall forecast his devices against the strong holds, even for a time."


Verse 24 He [Rome] shall enter peaceably even upon the fattest places of the province; and he shall do that which his fathers have not done, nor his fathers' fathers [Rome was diverse from previous kingdoms in that she reached a stage where she allowed her people to vote in their government becoming the first Republic. Rome also often conquered through diplomacy. She entered agreements with nations calling them ‘allies,’ but Rome was usually the benefactor]; he shall scatter among them the prey, and spoil, and riches: yea, and he shall forecast his devices against the strong holds, even for a time [A time = a year of 360 days, because 3 1/2 times = 1260 days, cf. Rev 12:6, 14.

A day in prophecy represents a year (Eze 4:6; Num 14:34) so a time, or 360 days may = 360 literal years. i.e. The city of Rome would continue to be the seat of world government for 360 years. From when? The battle of Actium, 31 B.C., described in the next few verses, is apparently the starting point, for it was from that date that Rome gained absolute supremacy over all when it conquered Egypt. Accordingly the 360 years ran from 31 B.C. - A.D. 330. Did Rome cease to be the seat of government in A.D. 330? Yes. Emperor Constantine gave Rome up and moved his capital to Constantinople.

After the death of Julius Caesar, Mark Antony sought to replace him. However Julius’ grandnephew and adopted heir, Octavius, won the popular support from Antony to himself. Bitter rivalry existed between them but they faked reconciliation. They divided the empire between themselves, Octavius took Italy and the west, Antony took Egypt and the east]

That which his fathers have not done = Rome did what had not been done by the fathers; namely acquiring territory through peaceful means by the custom previously unknown, of kings’ leaving by legacy their kingdoms to Rome. Those who helped Rome and those who came under Roman dominion also benefitted, receiving kindness leniency and protection. It was like having the prey and spoil distributed among them.



THE BATTLE OF ACTIUM – OCTAVIUS (ROME, KING OF THE NORTH) VERSES MARK ANTONY (EGYPT, KING OF THE SOUTH)


Verse 25

"And he shall stir up his power and his courage against the king of the south with a great army; and the king of the south shall be stirred up to battle with a very great and mighty army; but he shall not stand: for they shall forecast devices against him."

The Battle of Actium 31BC

Verses 24-25 reach from 161BC, to the time when Rome had acquired universal dominion. Verse 25 describes a notable campaign against Egypt. Such was the battle of Actium involving Octavius (Augustus of verse 20) and Mark Antony. Antony took the South (Egypt) and Octavius took the North. They pretended friendship (“speak lies at one table” verse 27) but each wanted to conquer the other (“both these kings hearts shall be to do mischief.”). In the Battle of Actium in 31BC, Octavius won and took the title Augustus, becoming undisputed ruler of the Roman world. After defeating Antony, Octavius brought vast riches from Egypt to Rome. Under various leaders, Rome warred against the plan of salvation and in AD70 the Romans destroyed Jerusalem.

11:25 And he [Octavius in 32 B.C.] shall stir up his power and his courage against the king of the south [against Mark Antony] with a great army [80,000 soldiers & 200 ships]; and the king of the south [Mark Antony] shall be stirred up to battle with a very great and mighty army [125,000 soldiers & 500 ships]; but he [Mark Antony of the south] shall not stand: for they shall forecast devices against him. [The battle of Actium took place in 31 BC.]


11:26 Yea, they that feed of the portion of his meat [the forces in the employ of Mark Antony] shall destroy him [When Cleopatra, Mark Antony’s mistress, fled the battle with 60 ships, Mark Antony followed. Upon seeing the fleet of Antony flee, Antony’s land army went over to Octavius], and his army shall overflow [“be washed” (Vulgate, Syriac) or “swept away” (RSV)]: and many shall fall down slain [In 32 B.C. Mark Antony committed suicide. Cleopatra, finding that she could not ingratiate herself with Octavius, also committed suicide].


11:27 And both these kings' hearts shall be to do mischief, and they shall speak lies at one table [Referring to their previous faked reconciliation]; but it shall not prosper: for yet the end shall be at the time appointed.

11:28 Then shall he [Octavius who became Augustus Caesar] return into his land  [after defeating Antony] with great riches [Octavius brought vast riches from Egypt to Rome. See Prideaux II, 380]; and his heart shall be against the holy covenant [Under various leaders Rome warred against the plan of salvation];  and he shall do exploits [Roman arms destroyed Jerusalem in A.D. 70], and return to his own land.

Verse 29

"At the time appointed he shall return, and come toward the south; but it shall not be as the former, or as the latter.

11:29 At the time appointed [A.D. 330, at the end of the 360 years] he shall return, and come toward the south; but it shall not be as the former, or as the latter  [In A.D. 330 Constantine shifted the capital from Rome to Constantinople in an effort to find a safer seat of government. Many take this as the signal for the downfall of the empire. With no strong ruler in the city of Rome the bishop of Rome (the Pope) rose in power]. 


Verse 30 For the ships of Chittim shall come against him: therefore he shall be grieved, and return, and have indignation against the holy covenant: so shall he do; he shall even return, and have intelligence with them that forsake the holy covenant."


For the ships of Chittim [“A general term for all islanders of the Mediterranean SeaCoasts and Isles  of the Mediterranean Sea” Strongs. cf. Num 24:24; Jer 2:10. Chittim was a source of ivory. See Eze 27:6] shall come against him  [The Vandals from Carthage on the Mediterranean coast of Africa attacked the Roman empire]: therefore he[Rome] shall be grieved, and return, and have indignation against the holy covenant: so shall he do; he shall even return, and have intelligence with them that forsake the holy covenant [Rome was weakening so it made overtures with the apostates in the church who were in the majority. The subtle change from Pagan Rome to Christian Rome here takes place. There is no change in the pronouns but this is in keeping with Daniel 8, where one horn represents both Pagan & Papal Rome].



Verses 31-45 describe the rise and fall of Papal Rome, the King of the North following the transition from Imperial Rome.

[Verse 31 repeats that which was described in Daniel 8:11-12. See notes there ]

For various reasons, including the Barbarian attacks (“ships of Chittim”), the Roman emperor Constantine shifted the capital from Rome to Byzantium (renamed Constantinople and today Istanbul) in AD330. Many take this as the signal for the downfall of the empire.  Shortly afterwards the Western Roman Empire began to collapse, dividing into the nations of Europe. The bishop of Rome (Pope), being the only powerful figure remaining in the city of Rome, took the power, seat, and authority formerly possessed by the Roman Emperor (cf. Rev 13:2). 


[Apostate church leaders had entered into an alliance with the State. This began with the so-called conversion of Emperor Constantine (~AD312). This Church-State union resulted in Papal Rome, which continued on in the seat of the Caesars, and therefore, assumes the symbolic title of the “King of the North.”]



ROME - transitions to PAPAL ROME & with it the mantle of the King of the North passes to the Papacy.



Verse 31

"And arms shall stand on his part, and they shall pollute the sanctuary of strength, and shall take away the daily sacrifice, and they shall place the abomination that maketh desolate."  ...see study on the taking away of  "THE DAILY" 

11:31 And arms [military forces of the Franks (French)] shall stand on his part [Shall give their strength and support to Papal Rome], and they [the armed forces] shall pollute [Heb. chalal - may be translated “wound, slay, pierce”] the sanctuary of strength [Heb. maoz. - strength. The city of Rome], and shall take away [Heb. ‘suwr’ literally take away unlike Dan 8:11's rum which means to take up, lift up, or exalt] the daily sacrifice  [take away the pagan self exalting spirit of antichrist in its paganism & Arian forms.


Daniel 8:12 “And an host was given [him] against the daily [sacrifice] by reason of transgression...” Military forces removed the Daily TO SET UP the Papacy

“Arms” [Heb. zeroah, military forces] took away “the daily” [literally “the continual”]. (cf. Dan 12:11). In this verse the term “take away” is from the Hebrew suwr and means “remove” while the thing removed still exists (cf. Gen 38:14; 8:13; Deut 17:20). 

The removal of the daily was necessary to set up the Papacy. “Arms” took away “the daily” (the continual) in order “to set up” the “abomination that maketh desolate” - Papal Rome (Daniel 12:11 margin). 


In 2Thess Paul guardedly referred to “the daily” as the “withholder,” that existed in his day and said that it would be “TAKEN OUT OF THE WAY” to reveal the “man of sin,” that is Papal Rome.  What power existing in Paul’s day withheld the development of Papal Rome and had to be TAKEN OUT OF THE WAY by military force of “arms” in order to reveal Papal Rome? The answer is the continual spirit of self-exaltation / paganism in its Imperial Roman form. 

The “daily” thus represented the “continual” pagan spirit of self-exaltation which in the time of Paul was headed by Pagan Rome. This power was taken away by military arms in order to set up the same disguised pagan spirit in its Papal form. Forces fighting on behalf of the Papacy took away or removed ("suwr") all anti-papal self exalting opposition while the Papacy took up (Heb. “ruwm” Daniel 8:11) the same pagan spirit of Imperial Rome.


The Franks (French), under their king Clovis, were the first barbarian nation of Europe to pledge their support to defend and establish the Catholic faith. Their military “arms” overthrew competing forms of self-exaltation, primarily Pagan and Arian and helped “place” (“set up” Daniel 12:11 margin) the “abomination that maketh desolate” - the self-exalting church/state power known as the Papacy which exterminates those when it can whom it perceives as a threat. 



Military forces help set up the Papacy

In AD 496 Clovis, leader of the Franks, became “the first barbarian king to become a Roman Catholic” and was called the Eldest Son of the Church.” Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1989, Vol. 3, p401.

“By his conversion he [Clovis] had led the triumph of Catholicism; he had saved the Roman Catholic Church from heresy and paganism...The Franks, from their First Appearance in History to the Death of King Pepin, W. C. Perry, p85-97).


His army helped expand the power of the Papacy. Between A.D. 496 and A.D.508, by alliances, capitulations and conquests, the Arborici, the Roman garrisons in the West, Brittany, the Burgundians, and the Visigoths, were brought into subjection.


From the time when these successes were fully accomplished, namely 508, the papacy was triumphant so far as paganism was concerned.

Arms shall stand on his part = Arms (Heb. zeroah) - Military forces.

Zeroah is used to refer to military forces in Dan 11:15, 22. 

The barbarians, that had established kingdoms in the territory of Western Rome, converted to the Catholic faith. Clovis, king of the Franks (French) was the first to convert in AD496 and he give his military arms to support the Papacy, against their former pagan religion.  Papal Rome received this military host as a result of transgression (Daniel 8:12), by uniting the church with the State. By this act of spiritual fornication, the church became a spiritual harlot. (compare Rev 17:1-2).

Pollute (Heb. chalal) the sanctuary of strength = The city of Pagan Rome was polluted or defiled by Papal Rome. Pagan places can be profaned. 


Of the king of Tyre (who symbolises Satan) we read, "Thou hast DEFILED (Heb. chalal) thy sanctuaries by the multitude of thine iniquities…" Eze 28:18. Note: These are HIS sanctuaries plural, not God's sanctuary, and they were defiled or polluted. This was not merely attempted.

Chalal is used in Scripture as meaning "wounded" Isa. 53:5; "slain" Ezek. 32:26); Begin; Profane or defile.  See Strongs Concordance.


Sanctuary of strength

verse 31 Arms polluted the sanctuary of strength

The word “sanctuary” is from the Hebrew “miqdash,” which can also refer to pagan temples (Isa 16:12; Eze 28:18.)

The word “strength” is from the Hebrew maowz, which is repeatedly used to refer to the forts and fortresses, the leading cities, of pagan powers. (See Dan 11:7, 10, 19, 38, 39). The temple of Pagan Rome was polluted by the arms of Papal Rome. “Rome” in the Greek New Testament is from the Greek “Rhome” and means “STRENGTH.”  Rome was symbolised by iron in the image of Daniel chapter 2. Daniel speaks of "the STRENGTH of the iron." Daniel 2:41. Nowhere in the Old Testament is the heavenly sanctuary associated with ma’oz (a fortress).


The sanctuary (miqdash) in 11:31 is clearly used in the context of a military setting along with ma’oz pertaining to pagan military activity. It has been shown that miqdash applies only to earthly sanctuaries of either a pagan or holy variety. Since its use in Daniel 8 is in a counterfeit cultic setting and in 11:31 miqdash is used in a military context along with ma’oz, we may conclude that the sanctuary in 11:31 is a counterfeit pagan sanctuary fortress – the sanctuary of pagan Rome.

Shall take away the daily = The daily was taken away by "arms" that is, military forces. 


Take away the daily = Heb. suwr, "turn aside, take away" the thing still exists but not in its original setting or form.

The words "taken away" in Dan 8:11 are from the Hebrew "ruwm" which means "lift up, take

up, take away." Arms took away the continual desolation in its pagan form while the spirit was taken up and continued in the the papal form.


Abomination that maketh desolate = The Papal power (Papal Rome).


In AD508 the turning aside of the daily was finally complete. Now the Papacy would surpass, supercede and transcend that same spirit as manifested by the pagan forces. Between AD508 and AD538 the setting up of the Papacy commenced. The joint action of the union of church and state, first with Clovis (AD496-AD508) and again with emperor Justinian in AD533-AD538 brought the Papal Rome to full power.


verse 32 And such as do wickedly against the covenant shall he corrupt by flatteries: but the people that do know their God shall be strong, and do [exploits]. ​


11:32 And such as do wickedly against the covenant shall he [Papal Rome] corrupt by flatteries: but the people that do know their God [the true church] shall be strong [morally & spiritually] and do exploits [evangelize even under threat of death]. ​


God's faithful witness under terrible persecution for many centuries. Apostate Papal leaders corrupted many, but the faithful, who knew God, witnessed at great peril to their lives; people such as the Waldenses, the Hugenots, the Albigenses and some Reformers like Wycliffe, Huss, Jerome, and Luther. Many of those whom Papal Rome could not corrupt she slew, burned, or imprisoned during the “many days” she held power (1260 “days” which symbolize 1260 years, “each day for a year.” (Eze 4:6; Num 14:34). The 1260 days, 42 months or 3 1/2 times is mentioned in Dan 7:25; 12:7; Rev 2:6, 14; 13:5). ​


verse 33 And they that understand among the people shall instruct many: yet they shall fall by the sword, and by flame, by captivity, and by spoil, [many] days.


The faithful receive a little help

For centuries the faithful found refuge in the wilderness (cf. Rev 12:16). Later on, German States which accepted Protestantism, provided a little help to the faithful.


11:33 And they that understand [the wise understand the truth] among the people [the true church including the Waldenses, Albigenses, Hugenot, faithful Protestant missionaries and even faithful Catholic people] shall instruct many: yet they shall fall by the sword, and by flame, by captivity, and by spoil [a prey], many days [THE DAYS OF PAPAL PERSECUTION - Days stand for years (Eze 4:6; Num 14:34).  The “many days” are the years of persecution during the 1260 year papal supremacy. This was the great tribulation which was “cut short” by the reformation. cf. Rev 12:6, 14; Matt 24:21-22].

The faithful witness under terrible persecution for many centuries

Apostate Papal leaders corrupted many, but the faithful, who knew God, witnessed at great peril to their lives; people such as the Waldenses, the Hugenots, the Albigenses and some Reformers like Wycliffe, Huss, Jerome, and Luther. Many of those whom Papal Rome could not corrupt she slew, burned, or imprisoned during the “many days” she held power (1260 “days which symbolize 1260 years, “each day for a year.” (Eze 4:6; Num 14:34).  The 1260 days, 42 months or 3 1/2 times is mentioned in Daniel 7:25; 12:7; Rev 2:6, 14; 13:5).


verse 34 Now when they shall fall, they shall be holpen with a little help: but many shall cleave to them with flatteries.

11:34 Now when they shall fall, they shall be holpen with a little help [THE PERIOD OF THE REFORMATION - Some European powers, enlightened by the truth, gave protection to the faithfull Bible based christians. Throughout the papal persecutions there were always faithful leaders who kept the light of truth burning during the spiritual darkness. The Waldensesian ministers in the 12th century onward. John Wycliffe in the 14th century. John Huss and Jerome of Prague in the 15th. Luther and the Reformation in the 16th and onward]: but many shall cleave to them with flatteries.


The Time of the End

verse 35 And [some] of them of understanding shall fall, to try them, and to purge, and to make [them] white, [even] to the time of the end: because [it is] yet for a time appointed.

11:35 And some [the word “some” was added by the translators and is not in the manuscripts. “Many” may be a better choice] of them of understanding [those who understood the truth] shall fall [Many faithful Christians were killed], to try them [prove them faithful], and to purge, and to make them white, even to the time of the end [TIME OF THE END BEGAN IN 1798 - The period of papal supremacy described in verses 31-34 lasted until 1798 when the papacy suffered a deadly wound. God had appointed the papacy a period of 1260 years (cf. Dan 7:25; Rev 12:6, 14; 13:5). Those years ended in 1798 which marks the beginning of the time of the end. Note, it is not the end of time but the time of the end - i.e., an end-time period. We have been and are living in “the time of the end” for more than 200 years, which, in the whole span of history, is not long.


Daniel 11:31-35 describes the “many days” of persecution under the papal power. Papal supremacy lasted from (538 - 1798). As papal supremacy ended in 1798, the time of the end began in 1798. The papacy, while supreme, caused the death of many who understood and taught the gospel. They fell “by the sword, and by flame, by captivity, and by spoil, many days...even to the time of the end...a time appointed.” At “the time of the end”, 1798, Atheistic France inflicted Papal Rome its “deadly wound”, stripping it of its political power, fulfilling Rev 13:3,10: “He [the papacy] that leadeth into captivity shall go into captivity: he that killeth with the sword must be killed with the sword.” As the papacy led into captivity so was it led into captivity and as it killed with the sword so was it killed with the sword.


“Berthier [The French general] entered Rome on the 10th of February 1798, and proclaimed a Republic...The aged Pontiff [pope] refused to violate his oath by recognizing it, and was hurried from prison to prison in France...he died...No wonder that half of Europe thought that with the Pope the papacy was dead.” J. Rickaby, The Modern papacy, p1


Daniel’s book was sealed to understanding until the time of the end: “But thou, O Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book, [even] to the time of the end: many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be increased.” Daniel 12:4.


“...since 1798 the book of Daniel has been unsealed, knowledge of the prophecies has increased, and many have proclaimed the solemn message of the judgment near.” Great Controversy p.356]: “because it is yet for a time appointed” [God had appointed Papal Rome a period of 1260 years (cf. Dan 7:25; Rev 12:6, 14; 13:5), that period ended when the time of the end began in 1798].

Having brought us to “the time of the end” in verse 35 the prophecy goes back in time in verse 36 to add further identifying points, bringing us back to the “time of the end” in verse 40.


Fall, to try them = Many were tried in the furnace of affliction and maintained their faith unto death, clothed in the white garments of Christ’s righteousness.


Even to the time of the end - 1798

The “many days” (verse 33) of Papal supremacy, (1260 years. See on Daniel 7:25) were to reach to “the time of the end.” As the Papal supremacy ended in 1798 “the time of the end” began in 1798. 


“Berthier [The French general] entered Rome on the 10th of February 1798, and proclaimed a Republic...The aged Pontiff [Pope] refused to violate his oath by recognising it, and was hurried from prison to prison in France...he died...No wonder that half of Europe thought that with the Pope the papacy was dead.” 

J. Rickaby, The Modern Papacy, p1


Having brought us to “the time of the end” in verse 35 the prophecy goes back in time in verse 36 to add further identifying points, bringing us back to the “time of the end” in verse 40. (See chart).

Verse 36 And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvellous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done. 


"The king" of verse 36 refers to the Papacy

In the Hebrew the definite article “THE”  precedes the word “king.” This implies that the king here brought to view is the power referred to in the preceding verses - namely the Papacy, there called the “abomination that maketh desolate.”

Note: Daniel uses “king” and “kingdom” interchangeably.


According to his will

The phrase “according to his will,” is only applied to powers which had total control over God’s people: (See Medo-Persia Dan 8:4; Greece 11:3; Pagan Rome 11:16). Following Pagan Rome, Papal Rome alone had such power during its 1260 year supremacy.


He shall exalt himself...above every god

Paul was inspired by the Holy Spirit to refer to this power as the “man of sin”... “Who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God.” 2Thess 2:4. This power is also the Little Horn of Dan 8:11, 25 which did “magnify [himself] in his heart.”  

Papal Rome exalts itself above God by transgressing the first four precepts of the Ten Commandments which apply to the only true God:


1.  Exodus 20:1-3 And God spake all these words, saying, I am the LORD thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. Thou shalt have no other gods before me. - The Papacy claims to be God on Earth and takes on the prerogatives of God.


2. Exodus 20:4-6  Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth: Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me; And shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments. The Papacy has images of Mary, Joseph, Angels and Jesus which the Catholic laity pray to and bow down to. In some instances they are required to kiss the feet of the statue of Jesus during the "Stations of the Cross" mass.


3. Exodus 20:7  Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain. Papal Rome takes the name of God in vain in speaking great words against the most high (Daniel 7:11,25, Daniel 11:36) and Blasphemies against God (Rev 13:5).

 

4. Exodus 20:8  Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work: But the seventh day is the sabbath of the LORD thy God: Papal Rome claims to have changed the Sabbath Day from Saturday the seventh day to Sunday, the first day of the week.


The power of verse 30 (the abomination that maketh desolate) is the power described in verses 31-36 - namely the Papacy.


Note: "The King" of verse 36, the verse of contention which the literal Turkey view of the King of the North claims is France is included in the following quote describing "A Power ... [verses 31-36 quoted]" which is Papal Rome and not France.


“The prophecy in the eleventh of Daniel has nearly reached its complete fulfillment. Much of the history that has taken place in fulfillment of this prophecy will be repeated. In the thirtieth verse A POWER is spoken of that “shall be grieved...And the king shall do according to his will. [verses 31-36, quoted.]” E.G. White, Manuscript Release Vol. 13, p394. 


What does it mean to EXALT or MAGNIFY oneself above God?  It is to change the Sabbath day, pointing to Papal Rome & not France as the power spoken of in Daniel 11:36.


“The prophetic declaration that the papacy was to oppose and exalt itself "above all that is called God, or that is worshipped," was strikingly fulfilled in the change of the Sabbath from the seventh to the first day of the week. Wherever the papal Sabbath is honored in preference to the Sabbath of the Lord, there is the man of sin exalted above the Creator of the heavens and the earth.” {BTS, February 1, 1913 par. 1} ​ “I want to keep God's law and live. But that man of sin has taken it upon himself to change the fourth commandment, and shove in a spurious Sabbath, to show his greatness and power to exalt himself above all that is called God or that is worshiped.” {1SAT 111.2}


The power spoken of in Daniel 11:30-36 is Papal Rome and inspiration foretells a repetition of her rise to power and her persecutions see Revelation 13:3.

Verse 36 And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvellous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done.


INSERTION OF IDENTIFYING POINTS

Verses 36-39 give additional points which clearly identify the papal power.


Dan 11:36 describes Papal Rome prior to “time of the end” mentioned in verse 35. The passage brings us back to “the time of the end” in verse 40. Verses 36-39 are one linked chain of thought describing Papal Rome in great detail prior to the time of the end. After describing the Papacy in detail the narrative returns to “the time of the end in verse 40. Note the connecting words used:


Verse 36 And the king...

Verse 37 Neither shall he...

Verse 38 But in his estate...

Verse 39 Thus shall he...

Verse 40 At the time of the end shall the king of the south push at him.


11:36  And the king [THE PAPACY - “THE king...” THE Pope/Papal Rome spoken of in the preceding verses.

“...in the original Hebrew the definite article precedes the word ‘king.’ This would seem to imply that the ruler brought to view has already been referred to.” SDA Bible Commentary, Vol. 4, p875. The power spoken of previously was Rome.


The power described in verses 30-35 is also the power here described in verse 36:

“The prophecy in the eleventh of Daniel has nearly reached its complete fulfillment. Much of the history that has taken place in fulfillment of this prophecy will be repeated. In the thirtieth verse A POWER is spoken of that "shall be grieved...And the king shall do according to his will. [verses 31-36, quoted.]” 13MR 394.


What power is spoken of in verses 30-36 inclusive?  The papal power. Thus the king in verse 36 is Papal Rome. Some contend that the king of v 36 is France but France was not mentioned in verse 30. It is a private interpretation in an attempt to formulate a triangular war in verse 40]

shall do according to his will [exercise total control.  A WORLD POWER – the phrase “According to his will” is only used in reference to successive world powers which had the power of life & death over God’s people. cf. Medo Persia Dan 8:4; Grecia Dan 11:3; Pagan Rome Dan 11:16.


After Pagan Rome the next power to have such supremacy was Papal Rome.

“... compromise between Paganism and Christianity resulted in the development of the "man of sin" foretold in prophecy as opposing and exalting himself above God. That gigantic system of false religion is a masterpiece of Satan's power - a monument of his efforts to seat himself upon the throne to rule the earth according to his will...Satan worked ACCORDING TO HIS WILL" GC 50, 51


Ques. Papal Rome was first introduced in Daniel 11:31. Why was it not then said to have done according to his will?

Ans. The rise and actions of Greece under Alexander is described in the first part of Dan 11:3, but his doing according to his will is mentioned in the latter part of verse 3.

Pagan Rome, the robber of God's people, was introduced in Dan 11:14 but his doing according to his will was not mentioned until verse 16. As these do not present a problem neither does Dan 11:31-36];


and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god [The man of sin “Who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God...shewing himself that he is God.” 2Thess 2:3-5; 7 BC 910. This power exalts itself above God by claiming to have changed God’s law. cf.  Dan 7:25],


WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO “EXALT” ONESELF ABOVE GOD?

Inspiration tells us, it is to change the Sabbath of God. The change of the Sabbath from the seventh day to the first day of the week is therefore the manifestation of what it means to EXALT oneself or in this case HIMSELF above God. Papal Rome alone has fulfilled this stipulation of the prophecy in changing God’s Law regarding the Sabbath Day.  Therefore, the King of Daniel 11:36 is Papal Rome and NOT France or Napoleon.


“The prophetic declaration that the papacy was to oppose and exalt itself "above all that is called God, or that is worshipped," was strikingly fulfilled in the change of the Sabbath from the seventh to the first day of the week. Wherever the papal Sabbath is honored in preference to the Sabbath of the Lord, there is the man of sin exalted above the Creator of the heavens and the earth.  {BTS, February 1, 1913 par. 1}


“The prophet Daniel declared that the Roman Church, symbolized by the little horn, was to think to change times and laws, [Daniel 7:25.] while Paul styled it the man of sin, [2 Thessalonians 2:3, 4.] who was to exalt himself above God. Only by changing God's law could the papacy exalt itself above God; whoever should understandingly keep the law as thus changed would be giving supreme honor to that power by which the change was made. Such an act of obedience to papal laws would be a mark of allegiance to the pope in the place of God.” {4SP 279.1}   


and shall speak marvellous things against the God of gods [SPEAKS BLASPHEMY - Claiming to be God, and claiming to be able to forgive sin. Daniel 7:11, 25; Revelation 13:5, 6],


“And he shall speak [great] words against the most High, and shall wear out the saints of the most High, and think to change times and laws: and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time. Dan 7:25


“And there was given unto him a mouth speaking great things and blasphemies; and power was given unto him to continue forty [and] two months. Rev 13:5


The Bible defines blasphemy as claiming to be God and or claiming to be able to forgive sin (See John 10:32-33; Mark 2:7). By the priest forgiving sinners the Roman Catholic Confessional shows itself to be blasphemous. Papal Rome claims both attributes and is the King of Daniel 11:36.

Mark 2:7 “Why doth this [man] thus speak blasphemies? who can forgive sins but God only?”

John 10:32,33 “Jesus answered them, Many good works have I showed you from my Father; for which of those works do ye stone me?  The Jews answered him, saying,  For a good work we stone thee not; but for blasphemy; and because that thou, being a man, makest thyself God.”  

Matt 23:9 “And call no [man] your father upon the earth: for one is your Father, which is in heaven.” 


Lucius Ferraris, in his Prompta Bibliotheca which the Catholic Encyclopedia refers to as “a veritable encyclopedia of religious knowledge” and “a precious mine of information,” declares, in its article on the pope, that,  “the pope is of so great dignity and so exalted that he is not a mere man, but as it were God, and the vicar of God. . . . The pope is of such lofty and supreme dignity that, properly speaking, he has not been established in any rank of dignity, but rather has been placed upon the very summit of all ranks of dignities. . . . The pope is called most holy because he is rightfully presumed to be such...


“The pope alone is deservedly called by the name ‘most holy,’ because he alone is the vicar of Christ, who is the fountain and source and fullness of all holiness. . . . ‘He is likewise the divine monarch and supreme emperor, and king of kings.’ . . . Hence the pope is crowned with a triple crown, as king of heaven and of earth and of the lower regions. . . . Moreover the superiority and the power of the Roman Pontiff by no means pertain only to heavenly things, to earthly things, and to things under the earth, but are even over angels, than whom he is greater. . . . So that if it were possible that the angels might err in the faith, or might think contrary to the faith, they could be judged and excommunicated by the pope. . . . For he is of so great dignity and power that he forms one and the same tribunal with Christ. . . .


“The pope is as it were God on earth, sole sovereign of the faithful of Christ, chief king of kings, having plenitude of power, to whom has been intrusted by the omnipotent God direction not only of the earthly but also of the heavenly kingdom. . . . The pope is of so great authority and power that he can modify, explain, or interpret even divine laws.” Translated from Lucius Ferraris, Prompta Bibliotheca, art. “Papa,” II, Vol. VI, pp. 26-29.


“The Pope is not only the representative of Jesus Christ, but he is Jesus Christ Himself, hidden under veil of the flesh.” The Catholic National, July, 1895.


“The pope is crowned with a triple crown as king of heaven, and earth, and purgatory.” Ferraris’ Promptta Bibliotheca, Vol. VI, p 26, article “Papa.”


“What only God can do by his omnipotence, the priest can also do...Indeed it is not too much to say that in view of the sublimity of their office the priests are so many Gods.” Dignity and Duties of the Priest, Alphonsus De Liguori, p35.


“Seek where you will, through heaven and earth, and you will find one created being who can forgive the sinner, who can free him from the chains of hell. That extraordinary being is the priest, the Roman Catholic Priest.” The Catholic Priest, p. 78.


“Does the Priest truly remit [forgive] sins, or does he only declare they are remitted? The priest does really and truly remit the sin in virtue of the power given him by Christ.” Joseph Deharbe, S.J., A Complete Catechism of the Catholic  Religion, p275.

“God Himself is obliged to abide by the judgment of His priests, and either not to pardon or to pardon according as they refuse or give absolution...The sentence of the priest precedes, and God subscribes to it.” Dignities and Duties of the Priest, Vol. 12, p. 27.


“This judicial authority will even include the power to pardon sin.” Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. 12, art. Pope, p. 265.


“The Pope is supreme judge of the law of the land...He is the viceregent of Christ, and is not only a priest forever, but is King of kings and Lord of lords.” La Civilta Cattolica, March 18, 1871.


“Given in Rome from our palace, the 10th of February, 1817, the XIV Jurisdiction of the most holy Pontiff and Father in Christ, and our Lord our God the Pope, Leo XII...” Rome as It Is, p. 180.


“All names which in Scripture are applied to Christ, by virtue of which it is established that he is over the church, all the same names are applied to the Pope.” Cardinal Bellarmine, On the Authority of the Councils, Vol. 2, p. 266.


“The Pope is of so great authority and power that he can modify, explain, or interpret even Divine laws...THE POPE CAN MODIFY DIVINE LAW, since his power is not of man, but of God, and he acts in the place of God upon earth.” Lucius Ferraris, “Papa,” art. 2, in Prompta Bibliotheca.


“The pope has power to change times, to abrogate [change] laws, and to dispense [do away] with all things, even the precepts of Christ.” Decretal, De Translantic Episcop.

Papal Rome claims to be able to change the teachings and laws of God.

Papal Rome claims to be able to forgive sins against God, which is blasphemy (See Mark 2:7; Matt 23:9).

As noted above Papists have claimed that the Pope is Lord of lords and king of kings, a title reserved only for Christ and no mortal.     


and shall prosper [PROSPERITY - The papacy prospered and became influential “...it [the little horn] cast down the truth to the ground; and it practised, and prospered.” Dan 8:12, 24. Compare the harlot of  Rev 17:4 dripping with gold & jewels.

“How much she [the whore of Rev 17] hath glorified herself, and lived deliciously.” Rev 18:7]


till the indignation be accomplished: for that that is determined [in the investigative judgment] shall be done [“until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolator [Rome].” Dan 9:27. (margin)


verse 37 Neither shall he regard the God of his fathers, nor the desire of women, nor regard any god: for he shall magnify himself above all.


The Papacy did not regard the God of his fathers - the God of the Apostles

The apostles likened themselves to fathers of their converts (1 Cor 4:15; 3 John 4; Phil 1:10) Note: Though the apostles were in a way spiritual fathers of those converted through them we are not to call any man our spiritual Father. Matt 23:9. 

By commanding unbiblical doctrines the Papacy shows that it does not regard the God of its ‘fathers.’ Papal Rome prefers its priests to be called “FATHER”, the priests are called “father such and such” and even the Pope is referred to as the holy father contrary to the scriptures. It demonstrates that Papal Rome does not regard the God of his fathers (the apostles). And who did the apostles believe was God? The God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. Papal Rome styles itself as Father, thereby denying the true Father and God of us all.


The Papacy did not regard Christ, the desire of "women"

Women represent churches and Christ is the desire of the churches. They all claim His name "Christian," but few do as He asks... In Isaiah 4:1 Christ is represented as the desire of women. Women symbolize churches (Jer 6:2; 2Cor 11:2). In the end-times many churches desire to be called by Christ’s name while doing what they want and not what Christ desires for them. The Papacy has not regarded Christ, the desire of churches, in that the Papacy has done contrary to Christ’s word - the Bible.


Incidentally marriage might also be called the desire of women, (Gen 3:16) and this is also forbidden the Catholic clergy and the Nuns. 


“Although celibacy is not expressly enforced by the Saviour...the [Catholic] Church felt it her duty to lay it down as a law.” The Faith of Our Fathers, James Cardinal Gibbons, (Roman Catholic) 1917 ed., p401.


The Papacy thus disregards:

1. God (God the Father), by altering His Law.

2. The Desire of women (Jesus, the Son of God), by doing contrary to His teachings.

3. Any God, by claiming to be the Vicar (representative) of Christ and the only infallible interpreter of Scripture, whereas the Scripture teaches that the Holy Spirit is Christ’s Spirit and infallible Interpreter.


The Papacy magnifies itself above all

Papal quotes show their self exaltation:

“The Pope is not only the representative of Jesus Christ, but he is Jesus Christ Himself, hidden under veil of the flesh.” The Catholic National, July, 1895.

“The pope is crowned with a triple crown as king of heaven, and earth, and purgatory.” Ferraris’ Promptta Bibliotheca, Vol. VI, p 26, article “Papa.”


“What only God can do by his omnipotence, the priest can also do...Indeed it is not too much to say that in view of the sublimity of their office the priests are so many Gods.” Dignity and Duties of the Priest, Alphonsus De Liguori, p35.


“The Pope is of so great authority and power that he can modify, explain, or interpret even Divine laws...THE POPE CAN MODIFY DIVINE LAW, since his power is not of man, but of God, and he acts in the place of God upon earth.” Lucius Ferraris, “Papa,” art. 2, in Prompta Bibliotheca


“The pope has power to change times, to abrogate [change] laws, and to dispense [do away] with all things, even the precepts of Christ.” Decretal, De Translantic Episcop.


verse 38 But in his estate shall he honour the God of forces: and a god whom his fathers knew not shall he honour with gold, and silver, and with precious stones, and pleasant things.

Verse 37 said he regards no God except himself. The God of forces must therefore be himself. The word “forces” in this verse is from the Hebrew “mauwz” which means STRENGTH. The word “Rome‚“ in the New Testament is from the Greek “Rhome” and means “STRENGTH.” In the place of God, the Papacy worships the GOD OF FORCES - the GOD OF ROME. Christ draws by love. Rome compels by force.


The marginal reading of v 38 says, “...as for the Almighty God, IN HIS SEAT he shall honour yea, he shall honour A GOD, whom his fathers knew not.”


Paul called this power the “man of sin” “Who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshipped; so that he as God SITTETH IN THE TEMPLE OF GOD, shewing himself that he is God.” 

The temple (Gr. naos) in which he would sit is the Christian church. See Eph 2:21-22. 


Paul’s words in 2Thess 2 are clearly linked to Daniel 11. Paul speaks of a withholder that had to be taken out of the way to reveal the man of sin.


Daniel spoke of the daily which had to be taken away in order to set up the abomination that maketh desolate.

Paul spoke of the Man of sin sitting in the temple of God (evidently in God’s seat).

Daniel spoke of this power sitting in God’s seat. 

Paul spoke of this self exalting power

Daniel spoke of this self exalting power.


Gold, silver, precious stones etc.

Rev 17 speaks of the whore of Babylon who fornicates with the kings of the earth and is decked in GOLD, PRECIOUS STONES etc. Claiming that she holds the keys to heaven or hell, Rome has had a captivating control over kings and nations. 


verse 39 Thus shall he do in the most strong holds with a strange god, whom he shall acknowledge [and] increase with glory: and he shall cause them to rule over many, and shall divide the land for gain. 


MARIOLATRY – A god whom his fathers knew not.  The worship of Mary, a strange god.

The papacy has gradually increased the place of Mary glorifying her to the level of a god.

She is venerated and bowed before which is sinful (Exo 20:5).

She is prayed to and called the mediatrix between God & man which is error (1Tim 2:5).

She has become the dispenser of the graces of Christ which is error (1Cor 12:11).

Papal Rome claims she was free from sin which is error (see Luke 1:47).

She has even been called the co-redeemer. 


Cause them to rule over many

Exerting their influence through the places of power among the nations the Popes have increased in glory and ruled over many. 


Divide the land for gain

Wealthy dioceses and archdioceses offered opportunity for personal gain and self-aggrandizement. These were obtained by those who promised to pay their Church superiors the most. The Papacy also helped settle territorial disputes between nations in such a way that the church benefitted.  The merchandizing spirit in the church is mentioned in the 3rd seal of Rev 6:5-6. cf. Mic 3:11; Eze 34.


verse 40  And at the time of the end shall the king of the south push at him: and the king of the north shall come against him like a whirlwind, with chariots, and with horsemen, and with many ships; and he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow and pass over.

At the time of the end - 1798

In Daniel 11:30-35 the period of Papal supremacy is described as lasting “even to the time of the end.” As the Papal supremacy ended in 1798, the time of the end began in 1798. 


The Hebrew expression is ube'et and can mean "in, at, on, into, with, from when," etc. Ube'et can mean "and in the time of." e.g. "And in the time of their trouble." Neh 9:27. }"in those days." Jer 50:20. All these are applicable to the text before us.


To “PUSH” is to attack and conquer just as the Ram (Medo-Persia) pushing in Daniel 8:4 represented a kingdom conquering others. Therefore, according to the prophecy, in 1798 the King of the South would attack the power we have been identifying - the Papacy. According to our study the time of the end began in 1798.  


As foretold, France attacked and abolished the Papacy in 1798.


“The ULTIMATE HUMILIATION of the  Church came when Pius VI was driven from Rome by the French armies in 1798.” Enc’ Britannica, 1989, Vol. 26, p938.


“In 1798 he [Berthier]...made his entrance into Rome, ABOLISHED the PAPAL GOVERNMENT and established a secular one.” The Enc’ Americana, 1941 ed.


“Berthier [The French general] entered Rome on the 10th of February 1798, and proclaimed a Republic...The aged Pontiff [Pope] refused to violate his oath by recognizing it, and was hurried from prison to prison in France...he died...No wonder that half of Europe thought that with the Pope the papacy was dead.” J. Rickaby, The Modern Papacy, p1


verse 40  "And at the time of the end shall the king of the south push at him: ....."

At the time of the end - 1798

The prophecy said that the power which would “push” or attack the Papacy was “the king of the south.” In what way can France be called “the King of the South?”


The literal & local typifies the global & spiritual

Literal local powers that affected literal Israel represent spiritual global powers that affect spiritual Israel - God’s church. Israel was a miniature world in which God illustrated His way of dealing with sin. What happened to Israel are types, or figures, illustrating world-wide events in the experience of the church. (1Cor 10:6, 11; Rom 15:4).


While there is a change from literal to spiritual Israel, there is NO CHANGE IN the LANGUAGE. The Old Testament terms are kept but they refer to the Church worldwide and her enemies. (Matt 21:43; 1Pet 2:9; Rom 11:17-21; Gal 3:28-29. See Dan 9). 

In the same way the enemies of literal Israel, such as Babylon to the north and Egypt to the South, are used to represent end-time global spiritual powers that threaten God’s "glorious land" - His Church.


What spiritual / global power does the King of the South represent in the end-time?

In the first part of this chapter the literal king of the South was Egypt (Daniel 11:8-9). However, there is a prophetic principle that literal Old Testament things represent global spiritual things in the end times. What was the spirit of Egypt, the literal king of the south?


The spirit of Egypt was ATHEISM

Pharaoh, the original “king of the SOUTH,” defied and denied God’s existence, saying, “Who is Jehovah, that I should hearken unto His voice to let Israel go? I know not Jehovah, and moreover I will not let Israel go.” Exo 5:2, A.R.V.

"This is ATHEISM, and the nation represented by Egypt would give voice to a similar denial of the claims of the living God and would manifest a like spirit of unbelief and defiance.” E.G. White, Great Controversy, 1911 ed., p269.


In the 1790s this God-denying spirit arose in France.

During the Revolution, in 1793, “The world for the first time heard an assembly of men, born and educated in civilization, and assuming the right to govern one of the finest of the European nations, uplift their united voice to deny the most solemn truth which man’s soul receives, and RENOUNCE UNANIMOUSLY THE BELIEF AND WORSHIP OF DEITY.”  Sir Walter Scott, Life of Napoleon, Vol. I, ch. 17.


“France stands apart in the world’s history as the single state which, by the decree of her Legislative Assembly, pronounced THERE WAS NO GOD, and of which the entire population of the capital, and a vast majority elsewhere, women as well as men, danced and sang with joy in accepting the announcement.” Blackwood’s Magazine, Nov, 1870.


In France the Bible was banned and France plunged into the most bloody and licentious scenes ever seen in Europe, known as the Reign of Terror. The rise of atheism in France was the fruit of years of Papal influence. By following Papal policy and crushing out the Reformation, France destroyed liberty and reforms that would have blessed the nation. Rome had misrepresented the character of God, and the people of France, thinking that Roman Catholicism was Christianity, rejected Christianity, the Bible and its Author. Men like Voltaire spread their infidelity everywhere. The masses, long trampled on by Rome, rose up against the oppressor with fury. The guillotine was set up on the very spot where Rome had set up the first stake for the Reformers. The church that had shed blood had its blood shed. In rejecting Roman Catholicism as a deception, the French were led by Satan to regard all religion as a deception. 


The God-defying and denying spirit of Pharaoh was manifest in the atheistic Revolution of France.

Verse 40 - In 1798 the King of the South, [Atheistic France] attacked the KON, Papal Rome.

In 1798, as predicted at the very beginning of the time of the end, the atheistic French, seeing the Pope as an obstacle in their efforts to rule Europe, attacked (“pushed” cf. Daniel 8:4) the Papal State, abolishing it; giving it a deadly wound (cf. Rev 13).


“Berthier [French general] entered Rome on 10th February 1798, and proclaimed a Republic...No wonder that half Europe thought... that with the Pope the papacy was DEAD” Lectures on the History of Religions, Vol. 3, lec. 24, p1. J. Rickaby or The Modern papacy, J. Rickaby (a Jesuit) p9.


“The PAPACY was EXTINCT: not a vestige of its existence remained; and among all the Roman Catholic powers not a finger was stirred in its defense. The Eternal City had no longer prince or pontiff; its bishop was dying in foreign lands; and the decree was already announced that no successor would be allowed in his place.” C. Trevor, Rome and Its Papal Rulers, p440.


The “king of the south” is hereafter used to refer to the God-defying Atheistic power. Following France, the Communist state became atheism’s most powerful supporter. The French Revolution was the birthplace of atheistic Communism (See on Rev 11). Conflicts have continued as atheistic states and ideologies have continued to press back Roman Catholicism. 


“The COMMUNIST movement would never have taken form as it did except for the prior occurrence of the FRENCH REVOLUTION.” Palmer, Revolution, p11-12


“The connection between the absolutist REVOLUTION OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY and the MARXIST MOVEMENT of the next century presses for recognition... [It] is THE DIRECT OFFSPRING and heir...A RELIGION OF ATHEISM… coupling scientific ideas with the greatest political hopes that man has ever entertained, the absolute hopes that animated the FRENCH REVOLUTION.”  The Dignity of Man, R. W. Davenport, p163-9.


Note: There has been an attempt to introduce a third power, France, in verses 36-39  resulting in a "triangular war" in verse 40 but there is no evidence whatsoever in the text itself to sustain such an interpretation. Whenever the King of the North or South are spoken of it is in connection with each other and not a third party. In this case the King of the South is said to "push" at him. The "him" correctly interpreted means "the king of the North" and later in the verse, "the king of the South" as they resume their battles in verse 40 except in this instance, both kings have taken on new identities, Papalism and Atheism.


Here is the interpretation which is in keeping with the rest of Daniel 11 when it speaks of the battles between these two powers which continue to this day. 

Daniel 11:40 And at the time of the end shall the king of the south push at him: (the King of the North) and the king of the north shall come against him (the King of the South) like a whirlwind, with chariots, and with horsemen, and with many ships; and he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow and pass over.


When Rome conquered the northern kingdom, it became the king of the north and when Rome transitioned to Papal Rome, the latter assumed the same title. The literal king of the South was Egypt but we are told that the king of the South in verse 40 attacks, the king of the North, Papal Rome, in the time of the end (1798). "Egypt" represented the Atheism of Pharaoh. Pharaoh was noted for his defiance of God and rejection of His existence. The spirit of Atheism (the new spiritual King of the South) was manifested in revolutionary France which attacked the Papacy in "the time of the end", 1798.  John in the book of Revelation 11:7,8 describes revolutionary France as "spiritually Egypt" [beast of Atheism] - "And their dead bodies shall lie in the street of the great city, which spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt, where also our Lord was crucified."

Therefore around 1798, at the beginning of the time of the end,  we see the spiritual king of the north (Papal Rome) being pushed at (attacked) by the spiritual king of the south, Atheism, manifested in revolutionary France, abolishing the Papal government and taking the Pope prisoner.


This event in Daniel 11:40 was a remarkable prediction of events described in Revelation 13:3 when the Papal head of the beast of Revelation 13:1-10 received its deadly wound. This was accurately fulfilled in 1798 as prophesied by Daniel when the King of the South, Atheistic France, delivered the deadly blow to the Papacy. See The Beast


Atheistic France pushes at Papal Rome, the King of the North  in the "Time of the End"


Atheism falls in Europe


verse 40  ...and the king of the north shall come against him like a whirlwind.

Who is the King of the North?

The king of the north is the last power in Daniel 11. Based on the principle that the prophecies in Daniel repeat and enlarge on the earlier prophecies and as demonstrated above, the last earthly power in Daniel 11 is Rome:

Last earthly power in Daniel 2 - Rome, the feet of Iron & clay

Last earthly power in Daniel 7 - Rome, the little horn

Last earthly power in Daniel 8-9 - Rome, the little horn

Last earthly power in Daniel 10-12 - Rome, the King of the North.


Just as the “king of the SOUTH” refers to the Atheistic State, the “king of the NORTH” refers to the Apostate Christian State. This same power is called Babylon in the book of Revelation. Literal Babylon was literal Israel’s NORTHERN enemy. (Jeremiah 1:14; 4:5-7; 6:1; 10:22; 13:20; 16:15; 23:8; 25:9, 12). 


As literal Israel suffered at the hands of Babylon in the NORTH and Egypt in the SOUTH, so today the true church suffers at the hands of Apostate Christianity (which spiritually is Babylon in the NORTH) and Atheism (which spiritually is Egypt in the SOUTH).

These two systems are quite similar:

One is anti-christ (in place of true Christ) the other is anti-god. 

Catholicism breeds Atheism. (eg. the French Revolution. See on Revelation 11 - to be posted). 

Atheism breeds Catholicism. 

Many countries where Catholicism is strong become atheistic communists. Today as a backlash to atheism, Christians are attempting to gain political power. The papal system is on the rise. 


The deadly wound the Papacy suffered in 1798 is slowly healing. The Lateran Treaty in 1929 restored to the Papacy the Vatican State.


Headlines read: “Mussolini and Gaspari Sign Historic Pact...HEAL WOUND of Many Years...” San Francisco Chronicle, Feb. 12, 1929.  


The last part of verse 40 describes how the “king of the NORTH,” the Christian State, counter-attacks the king of the SOUTH, the Atheistic State.  Papal Rome's counterattack occurred in the late 1980s and early 1990s. By this time the most powerful supporter of Atheism was Soviet Communism - a party pledged to Atheism. The rest is prophetic history in the process of being fulfilled - the Soviet union and its satellite states are gone. Atheistic Communist Poland and others have fallen. The King of the North (Papal Rome) has certainly taken out a large block of the King of the South (Atheism) and it hasn't finished yet. China and North Korea will also fall in one way or another so that Revelation 13:3 might be fulfilled "and all the world wondered after the Beast". 



verse 40 The Christian State attacks the Atheistic State

like a whirlwind, with chariots, and with horsemen, and with many ships...


Ships = ECONOMIC or TRADING power (Ps 107:23; Rev 18:17, 19; Eze 27:24, 25)


Chariots & horsemen = MILITARY power.


Whirlwind = FAST (Amos 1:14; Jer 4:13). This language is borrowed from a description of literal Babylon, “his chariots shall be as a whirlwind: his horses are swifter than eagles...” (Jer 4:13). Literal Babylon was a type of the end-time king of the north.


Atheistic Russia’s collapse was so fast that it stunned the world. It was as prophecy had foretold, “like a whirlwind.” Newsweek magazine unconsciously used the very words of prophecy when it entitled its article on the collapse of Atheistic Communism: “DAYS OF THE WHIRLWIND.” Newsweek, Dec. 25, 1989.


“Nobody believed the collapse of communism would happen this FAST.” Time, Feb. 24, 1992.


The Papacy formed an alliance with the USA and is using ECONOMIC and MILITARY pressure to overthrow the atheistic Communist State.


Time magazine, 1992, describing the collapse of the Soviet Union, was entitled: “HOLY ALLIANCE: How Reagan and the Pope conspired to assist Poland’s Solidarity movement and hasten the demise of Communism.”


The Bible prophesied that the ships (ECONOMICS) and chariots and horsemen (MILITARY FORCE) would be used to overthrow the king of the south. Time magazine described how these exact things (ECONOMIC and MILITARY POWER) were used to overthrow the atheistic State:



“This was one of the great secret alliances of all time...he [Reagan] saw the collapse [of Communism] coming and he PUSHED it - hard.’


During the first half of 1982, a five part strategy emerged that was aimed  at bringing about the collapse of the Soviet ECONOMY...


1. The U.S. defense buildup already under way, aimed at making it too costly for the Soviets to compete MILITARILY with the U.S.  Reagan’s Strategic Defense Initiative - Star Wars - became a centerpiece of the strategy...

2. FINANCIAL AID to Warsaw Pact nations calibrated to their willingness to protect human rights and undertake free-market reforms. 

3. ECONOMIC isolation of the Soviet Union and withholding of Western and Japanese technology from Moscow. The Administration focused on denying the U.S.S.R. what it had hoped would be its principle source of hard currency in the 21st century: profits from a transcontinental pipeline to supply natural gas to Western Europe.” Time, Feb. 24, 1992.


Time magazine called this event “...the 20th century’s most dramatic SPIRITUAL WAR, a conflict in which the seemingly irresistible force of COMMUNISM battered against the immovable object of CHRISTIANITY.”Time, Dec. 4, 1989.


The language of the reporter is so similar to the language of the prophet, we stand amazed!


“Gorby’s bow to the Roman legions.” Title in the U.S. News & World Report.


The Sunday Oregonian ran an article entitled, “The Power of a Prophet: Pope John Paul II, with extraordinary insight into the present, has become more influential than any world leader.” 


A subheading read: “Bringing down Communism.” and went on to say:  “This is a man with an aura. He shapes history. His words and prayers cut like knives into the heart of Karl Marx’s GODLESS philosophy. With no army he did what tanks could not, destroy the Evil Empire. Mikhail Gorbachev, the former Soviet leader, said as much when he wrote, ‘Everything that has happened in Eastern Europe in these last few years would have been impossible without the presence of the pope and without the important role that he played on the world stage.”  The Sunday Oregonian, October 15, 1995. 


Verse 40 he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow and pass over.

The language of “overflowing and passing over,” appears to be borrowed from the Assyrian army marching south to overflow Egypt. 


“Now therefore, behold, the Lord bringeth up upon them the waters of the river, strong and many, even the king of Assyria, and all his glory: and he shall come up over all his channels, and go over all his banks: And he shall pass through Judah; he shall overflow and go over...” (Isa 8:7-8). 


This overflowing and passing over speaks of invasion and domination. The Apostate Christian State is to dominate world affairs. The countries he would overflow may be thought of as ideologies, just as the countries of the north and south represent ideologies not literal geographic areas.


In a literal sense we read of:


“The Triumph Of John Paul II-The TIDE of freedom WASHING OVER EASTERN EUROPE answers his most fervent prayer.” Life, Dec. 1989.


“While Gorbachev’s hands-off policy was the immediate cause of the chain reaction of liberty that has SWEPT THROUGH EASTERN EUROPE in the past few months, John Paul deserves much of the longer range credit.” Time, Dec. 4, 1989.


“...In the spacious ceremonial library of the 16th century Apostolic Palace, the CZAR of WORLD ATHEISM, Mikhail Gorbachev, will visit the Vicar of Christ, Pope John Paul II...The moment will be electric, not only because John Paul helped inflame the fervor for freedom in his Polish homeland that SWEPT like bush fire across Eastern Europe. Beyond that, the meeting of the two men symbolizes the end of the 20th century’s most dramatic SPIRITUAL WAR, a conflict in which the seemingly irresistible force of COMMUNISM battered against the immovable object of CHRISTIANITY.” Time, Dec. 4, 1989.


Verse 41 He shall enter also into the glorious land, and many [countries] shall be overthrown: but these shall escape out of his hand, [even] Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon.


Context

Continuing the thought of the king of the north overflowing and passing over as an invasion and domination of ideologies he will also enter into the glorious land.


Papalism enters God’s Church

Besides the US / Papal alliance in verse 40 he would ALSO enter into the Glorious land.

The language of this chapter is taken from the literal geographic world of God's Old Testament people -

King of the North (Babylon)

King of the South (Egypt)

Edom

Moab

Ammon

Ethiopia

Land of Egypt

Glorious land.

As the land of the north and the land south are ideologies so consistency indicates that the Glorious land is an ideology. It  would be inconsistent to make the Glorious land a literal place while the other lands mentioned are taken to be ideologies.

The places and names are borrowed from the geographic world of literal Israel but refer symbolically to global entities. 


As the The glorious land, mentioned earlier in the chapter, was the home of literal Israel, so the end-time glorious land would be the church - the home of spiritual Israel. This land is no single geographic location, continent or literal country but a global entity in the same way that the King of the North and South are global entities.

Similarities in the book of Revelation

In a similar way Babylon, a literal city of the Old Testament and enemy of Israel, represents a GLOBAL system and main enemy of the end time Israel (the true Christian Church) - Revelation 13,14,17,18.


Context

The USA figures in Daniel 11:40


"…and the King of the North (the Papacy) shall come against him (the King of the South - atheistic state) like a whirlwind, (rapidly) with chariots and horsemen (military power), and with many ships (economic power)…"


The military and economic power were made available to the Papacy through an alliance with the USA. Here in verse 40 is described the alliance of the Papacy and the USA. As Clovis had given his military host to the Papacy to take away all contending opposition for the first Papal ascendancy, so the USA is giving it's support to the Papacy to take away all contending opposition to the second Papal ascendancy (here, the atheistic contenders).


verse 41 however speaks of something else. It says, "He shall ALSO (that is besides what has been described, beside the US / Papal alliance of v 40), He shall ALSO enter into the glorious land, and many shall be overthrown.


Call out of Babylon into God's church

The call today is for God’s people to come out of Babylon - the King of the North). Where are the to go? To the Glorious land (the Home of God’s people). Atheists in the Kingdom of the South, may also come. God’s remnant church (the seventh day Adventist church) is not in North America, and there is no call for Adventists to come out of Babylon (Kingdom of the North) and come into AMERICA (the glorious land)! The call is to come out of Babylon (the land of the north) into the Glorious land (God's remnant church).


New Testament Similarity

1. In the New Testament we read of Babylon (Rev 14:8 - the King of the North),

2. Atheistic State (Rev 11: 8 - Egypt, the King of the South),

3. The Jews (Rev 2:9 - God's faithful Christian church),

4. The Holy city (Rev 11:2 - God's holy people),

5. A call to come out of Babylon (Rev 14 - evidently to return to "Israel", God's true people),

6. Israel (Rom 9:6 - God's faithful Christian people).


These references to Israel, the Jews, the holy city etc. refer to God's church not to the USA or any other literal local area.


Prophetic Parallel

“Glorious,”  Hebrew, tsebee is translated “pleasant” in Daniel 8:9 where it referred to literal Israel which Pagan Rome captured. To what does literal Israel answer today? God’s remnant Church. 


PAGAN Rome entered the LITERAL “glorious land” of Palestine (Daniel 11:16).

PAPAL Rome enters the global / SPIRITUAL “glorious land” - the true end-time church.


“Land” need not refer to physical territory. It often represents peoples (See Lev 18:3; Hos 1:2; Joel 2:18-21; Amos 8:8). 


This idea may be unpalatable, and there may be a desire on the part of those faithful to the remnant church to deny this, but where does the evidence, consistency, and context, point? 


What erroneous aspects of Papal Rome are entering into God’s church?

The list includes:

1. Erroneous views of God.

2. The erroneous definitions of sin as being more than the transgression of God’s law.

3. The idea that Christ took a human nature that was not identical to our own.

4. An unbiblical view of salvation in which Christ cannot keep us from sinning.

5. A hierarchical system of church governance.

6. Erroneous futuristic interpretations of prophecy.

7. The reinterpretation of the historical time prophecies as literal days and views which are beginning to cloud the identify of the true antichrist of Bible prophecy.


The truth is still being proclaimed by faithful members within God’s remnant church but the devil is wrath because he knows that he has a short time and is working hard to deceive, sow error, discontent, uncertainty and an un-Christlike spirit.


Many shall be ovethrown

The word “countries” is not in the Hebrew text. Through Catholic influence and theology MANY in God’s church are, and will be, overthrown. Prophecy foretells that Papal Rome will head all end-time global religions.


“As the storm approaches, a large class who have professed faith in the third angel’s message, but have not been sanctified through obedience to the truth, abandon their position and join the ranks of the opposition.” E.G. White, Great Controversy, 1911 ed., p608.


Glorious land and Glorious Holy mountain

Just prior to Christ’s return, because of the purification which results from persecution, the sinners in Zion will be shaken out and the church will change from the “GLORIOUS LAND” (v 41) into the “GLORIOUS HOLY MOUNTAIN”(v 45). 


Christ will present the church to Himself as “a GLORIOUS church...HOLY and without blemish.” Eph 5:23. cf. Isa 66:20; Joel 2:1; Zech 8:3; Isa 11:9.



Verse 41 ...but these shall escape out of his hand, [even] Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon.


These peoples were not in the glorious land but escape from the control of the king of the north INTO the glorious land. ​


As literal Edom, Moab & Ammon no longer exist, this confirms that the countries and lands in the latter parts of Daniel 11 have a spiritual application. These three peoples were related to Israel. Edom were the descendants of Esau. The whoredoms Israel committed with the Moabites (Num 25:1-3) typifies the ecumenical apostasy that some in God’s end-time church are entering into with the fallen churches of Babylon. ​


Moab and Ammon were Lot’s sons through his daughters incestuous relations with their father (Gen 19:36-38). Moab and Ammon escaped the destruction of Sodom in their Father, so to speak (cf. Heb 7:9-10). These of Moab and Ammon represent the remnant of God’s people in the various denominations who escape the end-time destruction by coming out and joining the true people of God. (cf. Rev 18:4).


“The Lord shall set his hand again the second time to recover the remnant of His people...they shall lay their hand upon EDOM and MOAB; and the chief of the children of AMMON shall obey them.” Isa 11:11-16.


This is being fulfilled in the call to come out of Babylon:

“September 23, the Lord showed me that He had stretched out His hand the second time to recover the remnant of His people [this is drawn from Isa 11:11-16 quoted above], and that efforts must be doubled in this gathering time.” E.G. White, Early Writings, p74. (Bracketed comment supplied).


“Company after company from the Lord’s army joined the foe and tribe after tribe [Edom, Moab and Ammon?] from the ranks of the enemy united with the commandment keeping people of God.” E.G. White, Testimonies to the Church, Vol. 8, p41. (Bracketed comment supplied).


Amos 9:11-12 compared with Acts 15:16, 17 shows that Edom and the heathen which follow God, represent “the residue of men.”


When enlightened with the truth and the call to “come out of her my people,” multitudes of God’s people presently in Babylon will separate from the fallen churches and unite themselves with the remnant. (Amos 9:9-13; Isa 56:6-8; Jer 40:11-12). 


“I saw that this message will close with power and strength far exceeding the midnight cry. Servants of God, endowed with power from on high with their faces lighted up, and shining with holy consecration, went forth to proclaim the message from heaven. Souls that were scattered all through the religious bodies answered to the call, and the precious were hurried out of the doomed churches, as Lot [Moab & Ammon being yet in Lot’s loins] was hurried out of Sodom before her destruction.” E.G. White, Early Writings, p278-279. Bracketed comment supplied.




Verse 42 He shall stretch forth his hand also upon the countries: and the land of Egypt shall not escape.


 "He", the King of the North, shall stretch forth his hand i.e. have power over (see 1Samuel 26:8,9) Egypt, the literal local King of the South which as noted above is symbolic of Atheism on a more global scale with Communism its champion. 


Global Communism (Atheism) will come under control.

Atheistic states worldwide will yield to the religious requirements of the Christian nations. All the world is to worship the beast (Rev 13:8). Forms of religion will continue but all except those who keep the commandments of God (Rev 14:12) will receive the mark of the beast. We can expect communist China to open its borders to ‘Christianity’ either through economic and or military influences.


The cover of Time magazine, June 19, 1989, said, “Revolt against Communism - China, Poland, USSR.”


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