Updated: Dec 25, 2019
are determined upon thy people and thy holy city
Jesus Christ is the Messiah
Daniel chapter 9 locates the very year Christ was to be ANNOINTED as the Messiah and begin His ministry, the DURATION of His ministry, and the very year He was to DIE for our transgression, and in doing so, cause the Jewish sacrificial system to cease.
A forbidden prophecy
This prophecy proves so clearly that Jesus was the Messiah that anti-christian Jewish scholars forbid people to read it.
“May his bones and his memory rot who shall try to number the 70 weeks.” See Talmud, [the oral law of Judaism] Sanhedrin, 97b, Soncino ed., p659.
DANIEL CHAPTER 9
1 In the first year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes, which was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans;
2 In the first year of his reign I Daniel understood by books the number of the years, whereof the word of the LORD came to Jeremiah the prophet, that he would accomplish seventy years in the desolations of Jerusalem.
3 And I set my face unto the Lord God, to seek by prayer and supplications, with fasting, and sackcloth, and ashes:
4 And I prayed unto the LORD my God, and made my confession, and said, O Lord, the great and dreadful God, keeping the covenant and mercy to them that love him, and to them that keep his commandments;
5 We have sinned, and have committed iniquity, and have done wickedly, and have rebelled, even by departing from thy precepts and from thy judgments:
6 Neither have we hearkened unto thy servants the prophets, which spake in thy name to our kings, our princes, and our fathers, and to all the people of the land.
7 O Lord, righteousness belongeth unto thee, but unto us confusion of faces, as at this day; to the men of Judah, and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and unto all Israel, that are near, and that are far off, through all the countries whither thou hast driven them, because of their trespass that they have trespassed against thee.
8 O Lord, to us belongeth confusion of face, to our kings, to our princes, and to our fathers, because we have sinned against thee.
9 To the Lord our God belong mercies and forgivenesses, though we have rebelled against him;
10 Neither have we obeyed the voice of the LORD our God, to walk in his laws, which he set before us by his servants the prophets.
11 Yea, all Israel have transgressed thy law, even by departing, that they might not obey thy voice; therefore the curse is poured upon us, and the oath that is written in the law of Moses the servant of God, because we have sinned against him.
12 And he hath confirmed his words, which he spake against us, and against our judges that judged us, by bringing upon us a great evil: for under the whole heaven hath not been done as hath been done upon Jerusalem.
13 As it is written in the law of Moses, all this evil is come upon us: yet made we not our prayer before the LORD our God, that we might turn from our iniquities, and understand thy truth.
14 Therefore hath the LORD watched upon the evil, and brought it upon us: for the LORD our God is righteous in all his works which he doeth: for we obeyed not his voice.
15 And now, O Lord our God, that hast brought thy people forth out of the land of Egypt with a mighty hand, and hast gotten thee renown, as at this day; we have sinned, we have done wickedly.
16 O Lord, according to all thy righteousness, I beseech thee, let thine anger and thy fury be turned away from thy city Jerusalem, thy holy mountain: because for our sins, and for the iniquities of our fathers, Jerusalem and thy people are become a reproach to all that areabout us.
17 Now therefore, O our God, hear the prayer of thy servant, and his supplications, and cause thy face to shine upon thy sanctuary that is desolate, for the Lord's sake.
18 O my God, incline thine ear, and hear; open thine eyes, and behold our desolations, and the city which is called by thy name: for we do not present our supplications before thee for our righteousnesses, but for thy great mercies.
19 O Lord, hear; O Lord, forgive; O Lord, hearken and do; defer not, for thine own sake, O my God: for thy city and thy people are called by thy name.
20 And whiles I was speaking, and praying, and confessing my sin and the sin of my people Israel, and presenting my supplication before the LORD my God for the holy mountain of my God;
21 Yea, whiles I was speaking in prayer, even the man Gabriel, whom I had seen in the vision at the beginning, being caused to fly swiftly, touched me about the time of the evening oblation.
22 And he informed me, and talked with me, and said, O Daniel, I am now come forth to give thee skill and understanding.
23 At the beginning of thy supplications the commandment came forth, and I am come to shew thee; for thou art greatly beloved: therefore understand the matter, and consider the vision.
24 Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most Holy.
25 Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times.
26 And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself: and the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined.
27 And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make itdesolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate.
v 1 In the first year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes, which was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans;
In the first year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus = 539BC. Darius is probably the historical Gobryas.
This was about 11 years after the vision of Daniel 8. There are several good reasons for this:
Heaven waited until Daniel was studying the 70 “YEARS” prophecy (v 2) until he was given the 70 “WEEKS” prophecy.
Daniel 9 contains two prophetic periods - 70 years (Dan 9:2) & 70 “weeks” (Dan 9:24).
Both were prophetic periods.
Both use the number 70. This was no coincidence.
Both concern Daniel's people Israel.
The 70 years captivity were because of Israel’s disobedience.
The 70 weeks are given for Israel to cease their disobedience. "To make an end of sins…" (v 24).
The 70 “years” ENDED in the reign of Medo-Persia.
The 70 “weeks” BEGAN in the reign of Medo-Persia.
The two periods form a pattern:
A. Introduction (v 1)
B. The 70 “years” (v 2)
C. Daniel’s prayer concerning the 70 “years.”
A’ Introduction to the 70 weeks (v 20-22)
B’ The 70 “weeks” (v 24)
C’ The prophecy of the 70 "weeks."
The 70 years were LITERAL time (70 historical years), one unbroken period without any gaps.
The 70 “weeks,” were SYMBOLIC TIME, one unbroken period without any gaps.
The 70 weeks are clearly symbolic of a larger actual period as they reach from the commandment to restore & build Jerusalem (v 25) unto the Messiah (Christ). Even though some time had passed between the events of Daniel 8 & 9 the chapters are connected. A passing of time does not in itself prove the chapters are unrelated. Centuries passed between the Old & New Testament yet both are certainly connected. Connections are based on content not necessarily chronology.
v 2 In the first year of his reign I Daniel understood by books the number of the years, whereof the word of the LORD came to Jeremiah the prophet, that he would accomplish seventy years in the desolations of Jerusalem.
Because of their disobedience God had allowed Babylon to take many captive, ruin Jerusalem & destroy God’s sanctuary. Jeremiah had prophesied that the captivity in Babylon would last 70 years (Jer 25:11-12; 29:10. 605-536BC inclusive) and Daniel understood that the 70 years were almost finished. However the message that the sanctuary would not be cleansed until 2300 days (Dan 8:14) caused Daniel to fear a delay in their liberation. 2Ch 7:14 said, "If my people, which are called by my name, shall humble themselves, and pray, and seek my face, and turn from their wicked ways; then will I hear from heaven, and will forgive their sin, and will heal their land."
verses 3-18 = Daniel therefore prayed and confessed his and his people’s sins calling on God’s goodness and asking that God “DEFER NOT,” (v 19) that is, not to delay their liberation.
At this very time, with Daniel misunderstanding the vision of the 2300 days of chapter 8, Gabriel returns:
v 19 O Lord, hear; O Lord, forgive; O Lord, hearken and do; defer not, for thine own sake, O my God: for thy city and thy people are called by thy name.
Defer not = i.e. do not put off the release from captivity promised in Jeremiah’s prophecy.
Because he did not understand the vision of Daniel 8 Daniel apparently thought that the 2300 days were to be an extension of their captivity.
Note: Daniel believed in the literal fulfilment of prophecy.
v 20 Yea, whiles I was speaking in prayer, even the man Gabriel, whom I had seen in the vision at the beginning, being caused to fly swiftly, touched me about the time of the evening oblation.
Gabriel = Gabriel had been commanded to make Daniel understand the vision recored in chapter 8 (v 16). He had explained everything except the 2300 days which "none understood." (Dan 8:27).
The vision at the beginning = “At the beginning” is from the Hebrew word Tehillah. Which vision does Daniel refer to? Daniel 8 was the previous vision in which Gabriel is mentioned by name. Daniel 8:1 also refers us back to “the vision at the first (Heb. Tehillah)” referring us back to the earlier vision of Dan 7. Since the same Hebrew word, Tehillah is used in Dan 8 & 9, we may assume that the “vision given at the first” refers to the vision of Dan 7. Therefore the one Daniel refers to in Dan 7:16 as, “one of them that stood by” is Gabriel. Chapters 7, 8 and 9 are thus all connected by the appearance of Gabriel, though Daniel 8 is the first vision in which Gabriel is referred to by name. The three chapters are related:
Daniel 7 brings to view the Kingdom and Christ as KING
Daniel 8 brings to view the sanctuary and Christ as PRIEST
Daniel 9 brings to view the sacrifice and Christ as SACRIFICE.
Working backward, Christ was our 1. Sacrifice, then our 2. Priest, before He will return as 3. King of Kings. In order for Christ to reign as King He must finish His work as Priest. In order for Christ to be Priest He first had to offer Himself as Sacrifice.
About the time of the evening oblation = Gabriel appears at the very time that the sacrifice and offering would have been presented if the Jewish sanctuary had still been operational. Gabriel’s return at this time is fitting for in verse 25 he indicates that the sacrificial services would be resumed when Jerusalem was restored. In verse 27 he then describes the period when the sacrifices and oblations would cease forever; an event that every sacrifice pointed to and that would be accomplished by the death of the Messiah.
Gabriel’s appearance at this time is also fitting as he comes to correct Daniel misunderstandings. Daniel apparently thought that the release from Babylonian captivity would be deferred (Dan 9:19) and no doubt thought that the 2300 days of Daniel 8 were somehow related.
v 22 And he informed me, and talked with me, and said, O Daniel, I am now come forth to give
thee skill and understanding.
To give the…understanding = Gabriel had interpreted the meanings of the beasts and horns
in Dan 8, but the 2300 days had not been explained (See Dan 8:27). Gabriel here returns to give Daniel understanding. Heaven saw that Daniel had misunderstandings and Gabriel was sent to correct his misunderstanding.
v 23 At the beginning of thy supplications the commandment came forth, and I am come
to shew thee; for thou art greatly beloved: therefore understand the matter, and consider
Consider the vision = There is NO VISION in Daniel chapter 9. Gabriel here directs Daniel's
attention to the previous vision of chapter 8, and specifically to the subject of time, which
Daniel had not understood.
Daniel 9 is further explanation of Daniel 8. Note the connections:
The angel GABRIEL begins explaining the vision (v 16).
Gabriel was commanded to "make this man [Daniel] to UNDERSTAND the vision," (8:16) but did not complete this commandment.
Two words for vision are used in Daniel 8.
The whole "VISION" in verse 1 is from the Hebrew chazown. The VISION of the  evening and mornings (v 26) is from the Hebrew MAREH.
It was the TIME element of the vision that was not unexplained. The 2300 'days.'
Daniel 8 mentions the "CLEANSING OF THE SANCTUARY" (v 14) which occurred in the LAST month of the Jewish ceremonial activities. (Lev 23:27). Christ's work as Priest.
The 2300 days mentioned the cleansing of the sanctuary (Dan 8:14), a work that occurred at the END of the ceremonial year (Lev 16 & Lev 23:27-32).
The RAM and a GOAT, mentioned in this chapter, though here representing pagan nations, bring to mind the sacrificial aspects of Christ. The Goat specifically bringing to mind the Cleansing of the sanctuary when a goat was sacrificed.
The same angel, "The angel GABRIEL who I had seen in the vision at the beginning." (v 21). As Daniel chapter 9 contains NO VISION this must be referring to the earlier vision of Daniel 8.
"I am now come forth to give thee skill and UNDERSTANDING." (v 22).
Daniel 9 has no vision. Gabriel tells Daniel to "Consider THE VISON (MAREH)" (v 23), that is specifically the vision of the 2300 days.
This was a vision he evidently had not understood.
Gabriel began with the subject of TIME. "70 WEEKS are determined upon thy people…"
The word "determined" is translated from the Hebrew word chathak, and means "CUT OFF."
The 70 weeks (490 days) were evidently cut off the larger 2300 days of chapter 8.
The seventy weeks were to "SEAL UP THE VISION." As there is no vision in Dan 9 this must refer to the previous vision. It would be senseless to say that the 70 weeks sealed up themselves.
Daniel 9 brings to mind the death of Messiah our PASSOVER, which occurred in the FIRST month of the Jewish ceremonial activities (Lev 23:5).
Christ's work as Sacrifice.
Daniel 9 speaks of the anointing of the most holy (v 24), a work that occurred at the BEGINNING of the ministry in the sanctuary (Exo 30:26-29; 40:9; cf. Heb 9:18-24).
Daniel 9 brings to mind the sacrifice of Christ
The STRUCTURE of Daniel’s visions confirms that chapter 9 is further explanation of chapter 8
Daniel’s visions are followed by a corresponding explanation:
Dan 2 - the DREAM followed by its EXPLANATION.
Dan 7 - the VISION followed by its EXPLANATION.
Dan 8 - the VISION followed by a partial EXPLANATION.
Dan 9 - no vision just further EXPLANATION.
Dan 10-12 - no vision just further EXPLANATION.
Daniel chapters 9-12 contain no vision because they are actually further explanation of the things described in the vision of chapter 8. These connections show that Daniel chapter 9 is given to help explain the 2300 days of the vision of chapter 8. The correct understanding of the 70 weeks (490 DAYS) of chapter 9 help us understand the 2300 DAYS prophecy of chapter 8.
Verse 24 Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most Holy.
Seventy Weeks = 490 days
Commandment to restore & build Jerusalem
Jesus was baptised & anointed. At this time Jesus became the Messiah which means anointed
Jesus cut off (killed) at Calvary ending the sacrifice & oblation
70 weeks end. Kingdom taken from literal Israel. Gospel goes to the Gentiles.
The 70 weeks (490 prophetic days) prophecy is a period of probation specifically for Daniel's people, the Jewish nation. They were to "...finish the transgression, ad to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most Holy." God had appointed them a specific period of time to make an end of sin.. God had allowed this prophetic period for forgiveness of Israel's sin. When Peter came to Jesus with the question: "...Lord, how oft shall my brother sin against me, and I forgive him? till seven times? Jesus saith unto him, I say not unto thee, Until seven times: but, Until seventy times seven. Matt 18:21,22. Jesus here alluded to Daniel’s 70 weeks and His long suffering toward the Jewish people.
God forgave Israel 70 x 7 times (Matt 18:22) but in the end they rejected Him, crucified His Son and began to persecute His church.
Weeks = Heb. Shabua.
Shabua is used a total of 19 times in the Hebrew Scriptures and in EVERY instance it refers to a week of days. The Hebrew word for seven, “shibah” and is not used here.
Are determined upon thy people = Literally "CUT OFF" specifically for Daniel's people, Israel. The word "determined" is from the Hebrew "chathak" which means "cut off". The 70 weeks time prophecy was "cut off" from the larger time prophecy of 2300 days of Daniel 8 which was the only vision not explained in Daniel 8. This "time of the Jews" would be followed by “the times of the Gentiles.” Luke 21:24, Acts 13:46
490 days cut off the 2300 days
As Gabriel is here explaining the vision of chapter 8, the 70 weeks, or 490 days, are evidently "CUT OFF" from the larger 2300 days of chapter 8.
As the 70 weeks, 490 days, were CUT OFF the 2300 days, the start of the 70 weeks must also be the start of the 2300 days. Both periods therefore began together.
Are determined upon thy people, and upon thy holy city = The 70 weeks or 490 'days' was especially for Daniel's people and city and were given as a probationary period in which God wanted the Jewish nation to cease from sin.
To finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins = Christ, by His death, caused the requirement of sacrifices and oblations to cease. The 70 'weeks' were a probationary period in which Israel were to stop sinning. The word translated "sins" (Heb. chatta'oth and chatta'th in some manuscripts) may mean sins or sin offerings. Of its 290 occurrences 135 times it refers to sin offerings. The plural chatta'oth almost invariably means sins. By His death Christ made to cease the necessity of giving sin offerings.
“Christ made an end of sin, bearing its heavy curse in His own body on the tree, and He hath taken away the curse from all those who believe in Him as a personal Saviour. He makes an end of the controlling power of sin in the heart, and the life and character of the believer testify to the genuine character of the grace of Christ.” 1SM, p395.
To make reconciliation for iniquity = "We were reconciled to God by the death of His Son," (Rom 5:10; Col 1:21-22; 2 Cor 5:18-20).
The reconciling death of Christ occurred WITHIN the 70 weeks. See on v 26-27. The Futurist view, which claims that the 69 weeks ended before Christ’s death and that the 70th week is still future, is clearly in error because such an interpretation does not have the reconciling death of Christ WITHIN the 70 weeks.
"By His perfect obedience He has satisfied the claims of the law, and my only hope is found in looking to Him as my substitute and surety, who obeyed the law perfectly for me. By faith in His merits I am free from the condemnation of the law." 1SM, p396.
"Men will learn of the reconciliation for iniquity and of the everlasting righteousness which the Messiah has brought in through His sacrifice." 7T 149.
Bring in everlasting righteousness = By His perfect life and death Christ made everlasting righteousness available to all. Christ's death occurred during the 70 weeks.
Seal up the vision = Christ sealed up the vision and prophecy of Dan 8. The vision that Gabriel had come help Daniel understand was that of chapter 8, in particular the 2300 days. The 70 week therefore "seal up" the vision of "THE" specific vision (singular) of the 2300 days. The fulfilment of the 70 weeks 'seal up', or make sure the fulfilment of the larger 2300 days.
Note: It does not read visionS or prophecieS (plural) and cannot therefore refer to the ending of ALL prophetic visionS which will occur at the Second Coming. This cannot therefore be used to argue that the 70 week prophecy must reach till the second coming as Futurists claim.
Anoint the Most holy = Heb. ‘Kodesh kodashim.’ This term is never applied to a person in Scripture, unless it is here. It is always applied to places and things of the sanctuary. The singular term may be thought of as referring to the sanctuary as a whole. “To anoint a most holy place.” RSV.
All the things mentioned in this text were accomplished by Christ. As Moses anointed the earthly sanctuary before His priestly work began within (Exo 40:9; Exo 30:22-30) so Christ anointed the heavenly sanctuary before He began His Priestly work. The earthly was "serve unto the example and shadow of heavenly things," Heb 8:4-5. Christ's ascension to begin His heavenly ministry also occurred during the 70 weeks.
Vs 25 "Know therefore and understand, [that] from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince [shall be] seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times."
The commandment to restore and rebuild Jerusalem = Three Persian decrees contributed to the rebuilding and restoration of Jerusalem. The final part being issued in 457BC.
King Cyrus Decree in 537 BC - the shortest decree. “a DECREE concerning the house of God at Jerusalem...” Ezra 1:1-6; Isa 44:28. Only concerned building.
King Darius' decree in 520BC - medium length. “Then Darius the king made a DECREE...”
Ezra 6:1 13. Enc Brit’,Vol 3, p886. Also
King Artaxerxes decree of 457BC - longest decree. “I make a DECREE..Set magistrates and judges...[teach] the law of thy God.” etc. (Ezra 7:7-8, 12, 21, 23-26).
RESTORED the city of Jerusalem and the Jewish civil and religious state. An ACTUAL COPY of this decree, in the original language, is recorded in Scripture (Ezra 7:11).
All THREE DECREES formed the ONE COMMANDMENT
“And they builded and finished it, according to THE DECREE [singular] of Cyrus and Darius and Artaxerxes king of Persia.” Ezra 6:14.
Only with Artaxerxes’ part in 457BC was the Jewish civil state RESTORED, fulfilling the requirements of the prophecy. This commandment went forth in the 7th year of Artaxerxes, king of Persia, in 457BC. (Ezra )
Note: The 'letters' given to Nehemiah in 445/444BC. were not the commandment because they do not meet the requirements of restoration demanded by the prophecy.
1. Such is the importance of the Artaxerxes’ addition that an actual copy of the decree is recorded in Scripture.
2. The decree of Artaxerxes is by far the longest recorded in Scripture showing its significance.
3. It is significant that Jerusalem lost its autonomy and the city was destroyed in three raids and its rebuilding and autonomy were restored in a three part decree.
In Rev 14 Three angels messages contribute to the restoration of the spiritual sanctuary (the church). Both events experience troublous times.
Unto Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks, threescore, and two weeks = These first 69 weeks, or 483 prophetic 'days' located to the year the Messiah the Prince would appear.
The 'days' represent years because only in this way can 483 'days' reach from the commandment in 457 before Christ, to the time of Christ. Eze 4:6; Num 14:34 “I have appointed thee each DAY FOR A YEAR.”
69 weeks (483 symbolic “days”) = 483 literal years.
70 weeks (490 symbolic “days”) = 490 literal years.
Messiah the Prince = Messiah means the anointed. Christ means “the ANOINTED.” (John 1:41 margin).
Jesus was anointed becoming the Messiah at His baptism in “the 15th year of Tiberius” 27 AD. (Luke 3:1-3, 21-23) for He was then “ANOINTED...with the holy Ghost” (Acts 10:38; Isa 61:1).
Having then become the Messiah, Jesus told His hearers that the first 69 weeks of this prophecy were fulfilled by saying: “THE TIME IS FULFILLED,” (Mark 1:9-15). Footnotes
This also proves that the 69 weeks or 483 days represented 483 years. No complex calculation is required. Each prophetic day simply represents a literal solar year. 457B.C. + 483 years = 27A.D. There was no year “0” so the period reaches 27 AD. instead of 26 AD.
Beginning in the year 457BC the 69 weeks (483 years) reach into the year 27AD. In that very year Christ was ANOINTED, as the Messiah, at His baptism, in the 15th year of Tiberius Caesar (Luke 3:1, 21-22) 27AD. Note: There was no year "0."
Near the beginning of His ministry Christ said, “The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because He HATH ANOINTED ME to preach the gospel...” Luke 4:18.
“...God ANOINTED Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Ghost and with power...” Acts 10:37-38.
At the beginning of His ministry Christ came into Galilee, “preaching the gospel of the kingdom of God, and saying, The TIME IS FULFILLED” (Mark 1:14, 15). “THE TIME” that was fulfilled was the 69 weeks.
Seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks = 69 weeks.
This period is broken into two consecutive parts. 7 weeks and 62 weeks. The first 7 weeks (49 years) probably reached to the completion of the building of Jerusalem (7 symbolizes completion), however, as yet no solid proof of this has been discovered. The following 62 weeks reached to the appearance of the Messiah:
The street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times = The mention of the street and the wall indicate that the commandment was one that would not only restore but would also bring about a RESTORATION of Jewish law and Jewish decision-making.
Street = Heb. rechôb refers to an open space at gate of the city (Neh 8:16) and is associated with proclamations (2 Chr 32:6; Esth 6:9), instruction (Neh 8:1, 3), legal decisions (Ezra 10:9), and justice (Isa 59:14). The rebuilding of the “street” therefore signified the restoration of Israel’s laws, and judiciary as was accomplished by Artaxerxes' decree.
Wall = Heb. ch rûts comes from a root meaning “cut, decide.” It is used to express the idea of a legal decision or verdict (1Kgs 20:40; cf Dan 9:26, 27) and decision (Joel 3:14). The verb and its derivatives are used in the Old Testament to express the idea of “decide, determine.” Therefore the rebuilding of the ch rûts referred to a restoration of “decision-making” as was accomplished by Artaxerxes' decree.
In troublous times = In the rebuilding the Jews faced resistance as can be seen in the reading of the book of Nehemiah and Ezra. see footnotes
A Time to be Born, A Time to Die.
vs 26: "And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself: and the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof [shall be] with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined."
After [the] threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off = Christ would die in the 70th week, after the 62 weeks which followed the first 7 weeks.
Cut off = Be violently killed (cf. Gen 9:11). He died a God-forsaken death in our place so that we might live and not die.
But not for Himself = Christ died for us. “He was CUT OFF out of the land of the living: for the transgression of my people was he stricken.” Isa 53:8. 1Cor 15:3 “...Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures.”
Christ's death was IN DUE TIME. “For when we were yet without strength, IN DUE TIME Christ died for the ungodly.”
The "due time" was in the midst of the 70th week. “...when THE TIME was come that he should be received up, he steadfastly set his face to go to Jerusalem.” Luke 9:51. “...The Master saith, My TIME is at hand...” Matt 26:18.
And the people of the Prince that shall come shall destroy the city and sanctuary = The people of Messiah the Prince, that is the Jews, caused their city and sanctuary to be destroyed by rejecting the Messiah. The actual destruction was accomplished by the Romans in AD70.
Note: The Prince that was to come was the Prince mentioned in the previous verse, that is Messiah the Prince. Christ is called "Prince" several times in the book of Daniel.
Note: In like manner the professed end-time people of Christ, the Christian world, will bring about their destruction by the rejection of God's law.
And the end thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined =>
Flood = invading army (Isa 8:7-8; Isa 46:6-7; Rev 12:15-16; Dan 11:10, 22, 26, 40; Rev 16:12 compared with Rev 17:1-5, 15). This describes the desolation of Jerusalem and the sanctuary by Titus and the Roman armies in AD70.
Note: Though the destruction of Jerusalem was not one of the events to occur during the 70 weeks. However, its destruction is inseparably linked to the events of the 70 weeks.
Desolations are determined = The desolation of Jerusalem and the sanctuary was determined by the events during the 70 weeks. (See Matt 24:1-2, 15-20). As Messiah's professed people brought about the destruction of Jerusalem by their rejection of the Messiah, so the end time professed people of Christ - the Christian world, will bring about the destruction of the world by their rejection of His law. See Revelation 13 study.
vs 27: "And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make [it] desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate."
He shall = Messiah, the Prince that shall come of the previous verse.
Confirm the covenant = Christ confirmed THE covenant. God's agreement to save us.
Confirm = The word “confirm” is from the Hebrew gabar, and means to make strong or prevail, confirm, strengthen. (See Strongs).
Had this referred to the making of a covenant we would expect the Hebrew word karath to be used because it is used in every instance where a covenant in made in the Old Testament. Daniel 9:27 is NOT speaking of the making (karath) of the covenant but the CONFIRMING (gabar) of it.
He shall confirm "THE covenant." This is not just any covenant but it is THE covenant.
In Daniel "THE covenant" always refers to GOD'S COVENANT. (See Dan 9:4, 27; 11:22, 28, 30, 32).
The verse does not state the length of THE covenant but that Messiah would CONFIRM it for one prophetic week = 7prophetic days = 7 literal years.
These facts rule out the Futurist ideas that this refers to antichrist making a covenant and breaking a covenant in the future.
He shall confirm the covenant with many for one week = “And He shall confirm the covenant with many for one week.” The “week” here brought to view is the last one of the seventy; it is the last seven years of the period allotted especially to the Jews. During this time, extending from A.D. 27 to A.D. 34, Christ, at first in person and afterward by His disciples, extended the gospel invitation especially to the Jews. As the apostles went forth with the good tidings of the kingdom, the Saviour’s direction was: “Go not into the way of the Gentiles, and into any city of the Samaritans enter ye not: but go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.” Matthew 10:5, 6.” Great Controversy, p327
BUT they rejected him as prophesied: John 1:11 - "He came unto his own, and his own received him not." Christ was crucified in the middle of the 70th week. The Gospel of salvation was preached to Israel for the rest of that week (3 1/2yrs) which ended at the stoning of the Stephen, the first Christian martyr, sealing Israel's rejection of the Son of God, their only means of salvation. Paul bears this out in Acts 13:46,47 - "Then Paul and Barnabas waxed bold, and said, It was necessary that the word of God should first have been spoken to you: but seeing ye put it from you, and judge yourselves unworthy of everlasting life, lo, we turn to the Gentiles." Probation had closed for the nation of Israel as a whole but individuals can still heed the call of Christ and be saved. Matt 11:28-30
The specifics of the prophecy are seen to be fulfilled by Christ:
PROPHECY: He shall CONFIRM the COVENANT with MANY…(Dan 9:27).
FULFILMENT: “How shall we escape if we neglect so great salvation; which at first began to be spoken by THE LORD and was CONFIRMED unto us by them that heard him.” Hebrews 2:3.
The COVENANT is God’s agreement to save His people from their sins (See Heb 10:16-17; 11:8).
“Now I say that Jesus Christ was a minister of the circumcision for the truth of God, to CONFIRM the PROMISES [made] unto the fathers:” Rom 15:8.
Christ “gave “His life a ransom for MANY.” Mark 10:45.
“For this is my blood of the NEW testament (COVENANT) which is shed for MANY for the remission of sins.” Matt 26:28.
Because the entire 70 week prophecy concerned Israel, Jesus initially limited the disciples ministry to Israel, “Jesus... commanded them, saying Go not into the way of the Gentiles, and into [any] city of the Samaritans enter ye not: But go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.” (Matt 10:5, 6)
This week, the 70th, began in 27AD with the opening of Christ's ministry at the time of His baptism. It extended beyond the crucifixion, "in the midst of the week" in the spring of AD31, to the rejection of the Jews as the covenant people in the autumn of AD34 (490 years after 457BC).
The "vineyard" was then "let out…unto other husbandmen" (Matt 21:41. cf. Isa 5:1-7). For about 3 1/2 years the authorities of Jerusalem tolerated the preaching of the apostles but in AD34 they stoned Stephen to death, the first Christian martyr, and the church then spread abroad. Until this time the disciples had confined their work largely to the Jews (Acts 1:8; 8:1).
Cause the sacrifice and offering to cease.
Sacrifice (Heb. zebach) and oblation (minchah) = Common words for the sacrificial offerings and the drink and meal offerings which were part of the Jewish ceremonial ordinances.
Midst of the week = In 31AD, the “midst” or middle of the 70th “week” of years, three and a half years after His anointing as the Messiah at His baptism in AD27, our Lord was crucified. With the great sacrifice offered upon Calvary, ENDED THAT SYSTEM OF SACRIFICES AND OFFERINGS which for four thousand years had pointed forward to the Lamb of God. Type had met antitype, and all the sacrifices and oblations of the ceremonial system then ceased to be of any value. God indicated this by tearing the temple veil when Christ died. (Matt 27:51; Col 2:14-17). Christ also declared the end of the sacrifice and oblation when on the cross He cried “It is FINISHED.” (cf. GC 327-328).
Midst of he week = Christ ministry is seen to have lasted 3 1/2 years (Half a prophetic week) by the fact that He is recorded as having attended only four Passovers in His ministry:
John 2:13 (Spring A.D.28);
John 5:1 (Spring A.D.29);
John 6:4 (Spring A.D.30);
John 12:1 (Spring A.D.31).
“A time to be born, and a time to die...” Ecc 3:2
The 70 week prophecy showed when Christ's earthly ministry was to begin and in what year He would die.
Matt 26:18 “...My time is at hand; I will keep the passover at thy house with my disciples.”
Luke 9:51 “And it came to pass, when the time was come that he should be received up, he stedfastly set his face to go to Jerusalem,”
The 70 week prophecy therefore gives the very years of:
(1) the Messiah’s appearance and the beginning of His earthly ministry.
(2) the duration of His ministry
(3) the year of His death. “...in due time Christ died...” Rom 5:6.
(4) the beginning of His ministry in heaven (See on the last part of v 24).
Three events fulfilled in the very years prophesied show that the commandment of Artaxerxes in 457 BC was the commandment from which the 70 weeks began:
1. The baptism (anointing) of Jesus in 27AD.
2. Christ’s crucifixion in 31AD.
3. The spread of the gospel to the Gentiles at the end of the 70 weeks in 34AD.
Poured upon the desolate = “Desolate (Heb. shawnah - ruin, make an astonishment).”
Because they rejected the Son of God Jesus said to Israel, “Behold, your house is left unto you DESOLATE.” (Luke 13:35).
NB. As Israel brought destruction upon themselves by rejecting Christ THE LAW GIVER, so the end time professed Christian world will bring upon themselves destruction by rejecting the LAW of the Law Giver.
The 70 weeks had been specifically for Israel. When the 70 weeks (490 years) ended in 34 A.D., what happened?
“And they [the Jews] stoned Stephen, calling upon [God]...And at that time there was a great persecution against the church which was at Jerusalem; and they were all SCATTERED ABROAD throughout the regions of Judaea and Samaria, except the apostles.” Acts 7:59-8:1.
The probationary time given to the Jewish nation reached to the time of Christ’s first Advent and ended in 34AD, when, by rejecting Christ, they ceased to be God’s chosen nation. The gospel then went “everywhere.” (Acts 8:4). The “Time of the Gentiles” (Luke 21:24) will reach to Christ’s SECOND COMING.
For failing to do as they were told during the 70 wks (490 yrs) what happened to the nation of Israel at the end of the 70th week?
God repeatedly sent prophets to call wayward Israel back. “LAST OF ALL He sent unto them his son...” but they “slew Him.” (Matt 21:33-43) Jesus here prophesied of His own treatment by the Jews and concluded by saying “Therefore say I unto you, THE KINGDOM OF GOD SHALL BE TAKEN FROM YOU, and given to a nation bringing forth the fruits thereof..” Matt 21:33-43. "LAST OF ALL", that is, in the LAST week of the 70 weeks, God sent His Son to call Israel back but they rejected Him and slew Him. As a result the nation of Israel lost its privilege as God’s special people. Peter, speaking to the CHURCH, wrote “which in time past were not a people, but are now the people of God...a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, AN HOLY NATION.” 1 Pet 2:10, 9. In order to be saved Jews must accept Christ just like all others.
Because, as a nation, Israel rejected her last opportunity what happened?
“Then Paul and Barnabus waxed bold, and said, It was necessary that the word of God should first have been spoken to you: but seeing that ye put it from you, and judge yourselves unworthy of everlasting life, lo WE TURN TO THE GENTILES” Acts 13:46.
The 2300 days
As the 70 weeks were “CUT OFF” the 2300 days both periods began together.
As the 70 weeks began in 457BC so did the 2300 days.
Therefore the 2300 days reached to 1844. 457BC + 2300 years = 1844.
457BC is established as the correct starting point by the perfect fulfillment of all the specifications of the 70 week prophecy.
What happened in 1844?
According to the prophecy, “....then shall the sanctuary be cleansed.” Dan 8:14.
In the mid 1800s thousands from many denominations, across Europe, America, Asia and Africa, came to the conclusion that the 2300 days of Daniel 8:14 would end in the 1840s with the "cleansing of the sanctuary." This they understood to refer to the cleansing of the world by fire at Christ's second coming. The message spread to mission stations all over the world.
In the monumental four volume set, "The Prophetic Faith of Our Fathers", Leroy Froom examines the views of the principle expositors of prophecy in the 19th century. Volume 3, pp. 744-445 presents a table showing the views of 62 principle expositors. It reveals that 25 of 34, who identified the termination of the 2300 days, placed it in the 1840s.
"It was this grand clue - of the seventy weeks as the first segment of the 2300 years, cut off for the Jews and climaxing with the Messiah - that burst SIMULTANEOUSLY upon the minds of men in Europe and America, and even in Asia and Africa. This was the great advance in truth that led to the emphasis upon the 2300 years from 457B.C. to A.D.1843 or 1844 which we have surveyed. Clearer and clearer became the perception in the first four decades of the 19th century, until it reached its peak in America in the summer and Autumn of 1844, contemporaneously with the predicted time of the prophecy." L. E Froom, The Prophetic Faith of Our Fathers, Vol. 3, p749.
To those who longed to see Christ’s return this was a “sweet” message to share. Foremost in this “Second Advent Movement” was the Baptist, William Miller. Huge camp meetings were held, charts & publications were distributed and multitudes worldwide heard the “sweet” message that Jesus was about to return in their day and they prepared to meet Him. However “...Christ...did not return... Oct. 22, 1844. The quiet passing of this day led to what is called the ‘GREAT DISAPPOINTMENT.’” Britannica, 15th ed., 1995, Vol. 1, p112.
Revelation 10 speaks of the opening of Daniel's book that was sealed till the time of the end. There is described the sweet message that came from digesting Daniel's prophecy, and the bitter disappointment that followed.
Christ's disciples and the Bitter Disappointment of Calvary
The disciples had expected Christ to set up His kingdom and were bitterly DISAPPOINTED.
The disciples faith must necessarily be TESTED
Some who had not studied deeply rashly rejected Christ but others sought to understand the reason for their disappointment.
The disappointment of Calvary was the birth of the Christian MOVEMENT.
The disciples came to understand that Christ ascended to heaven to begin His ministry in the FIRST APARTMENT of the temple in heaven.
Fulfilling the events described at the END of the 70 weeks
The Millerites and the Bitter Disappointment of 1844
The believers in 1844 had expected Christ to return and set up His earthly kingdom but they were bitterly DISAPPOINTED.
The faith of those in 1844 had to have their faith TESTED.
Some who had not studied deeply rashly rejected 1844 but others sought to understand the reason for their disappointment.
The disappointment of 1844 was the birth of the MOVEMENT destined to finish what the disciples began.
The believers in 1844 realized that Christ had begun His final ministry in the SECOND APARTMENT of the heavenly sanctuary - "the cleansing of the heavenly sanctuary," a work that involved judgment.
Fulfilling the events described at the END of the 2300 days.