Daniel Chapter 8 - The Daily

Updated: Dec 28, 2019

Five verses in Daniel contain the "Daily"


8:11 Yea, he magnified [himself] even to the prince of the host, and by him the daily [sacrifice] was taken away, and the place of his sanctuary was cast down.

8:12 And an host was given [him] against the daily [sacrifice] by reason of transgression, and it cast down the truth to the ground; and it practiced, and prospered.

8:13 Then I heard one saint speaking, and another saint said unto that certain [saint] which spake, How long [shall be] the vision [concerning] the daily [sacrifice], and the transgression of desolation, to give both the sanctuary and the host to be trodden under foot?

11:31 And arms shall stand on his part, and they shall pollute the sanctuary of strength, and shall take away the daily [sacrifice], and they shall place the abomination that maketh desolate.

12:11 And from the time [that] the daily [sacrifice] shall be taken away, and the abomination that maketh desolate set up, [there shall be] a thousand two hundred and ninety days. 



Prophecy follows the repeat and enlarge pattern in Daniel chapters 2, 7, 8, & 11.


Daniel 2
Babylon - Gold
Medo-Persia - Silver
Grecia - Brass
Rome - Iron
Papal Rome - Iron & Clay

Daniel 7
Babylon - Lion
Medo-Persia - Bear
Grecia - Leopard
Rome - Terrible beast
Papal Rome - Little horn

Daniel 8
Conquered
Medo-Persia - Ram
Grecia - He-Goat
Rome - Little horn
Papal Rome - L Horn



Daniel Chapter 8


1 In the third year of the reign of king Belshazzar a vision appeared unto me, even unto me Daniel, after that which appeared unto me at the first.

And I saw in a vision; and it came to pass, when I saw, that I was at Shushan in the palace, which is in the province of Elam; and I saw in a vision, and I was by the river of Ulai.

Then I lifted up mine eyes, and saw, and, behold, there stood before the river a ram which had two horns: and the two horns were high; but one was higher than the other, and the higher came up last.

I saw the ram pushing westward, and northward, and southward; so that no beasts might stand before him, neither was there any that could deliver out of his hand; but he did according to his will, and became great.

And as I was considering, behold, an he goat came from the west on the face of the whole earth, and touched not the ground: and the goat had a notable horn between his eyes.

And he came to the ram that had two horns, which I had seen standing before the river, and ran unto him in the fury of his power.

And I saw him come close unto the ram, and he was moved with choler against him, and smote the ram, and brake his two horns: and there was no power in the ram to stand before him, but he cast him down to the ground, and stamped upon him: and there was none that could deliver the ram out of his hand.

Therefore the he goat waxed very great: and when he was strong, the great horn was broken; and for it came up four notable ones toward the four winds of heaven.

And out of one of them came forth a little horn, which waxed exceeding great, toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant land.

10 And it waxed great, even to the host of heaven; and it cast down some of the host and of the stars to the ground, and stamped upon them.

11 Yea, he magnified himself even to the prince of the host, and by him the daily sacrifice was taken away, and the place of his sanctuary was cast down.

12 And an host was given him against the daily sacrifice by reason of transgression, and it cast down the truth to the ground; and it practised, and prospered.

13 Then I heard one saint speaking, and another saint said unto that certain saint which spake, How long shall be the vision concerningthe daily sacrifice, and the transgression of desolation, to give both the sanctuary and the host to be trodden under foot?

14 And he said unto me, Unto two thousand and three hundred days; then shall the sanctuary be cleansed.

15 And it came to pass, when I, even I Daniel, had seen the vision, and sought for the meaning, then, behold, there stood before me as the appearance of a man.

16 And I heard a man's voice between the banks of Ulai, which called, and said, Gabriel, make this man to understand the vision.

17 So he came near where I stood: and when he came, I was afraid, and fell upon my face: but he said unto me, Understand, O son of man: for at the time of the end shall be the vision.

18 Now as he was speaking with me, I was in a deep sleep on my face toward the ground: but he touched me, and set me upright.

19 And he said, Behold, I will make thee know what shall be in the last end of the indignation: for at the time appointed the end shall be.

20 The ram which thou sawest having two horns are the kings of Media and Persia.

21 And the rough goat is the king of Grecia: and the great horn that is between his eyes is the first king.

22 Now that being broken, whereas four stood up for it, four kingdoms shall stand up out of the nation, but not in his power.

23 And in the latter time of their kingdom, when the transgressors are come to the full, a king of fierce countenance, and understanding dark sentences, shall stand up.

24 And his power shall be mighty, but not by his own power: and he shall destroy wonderfully, and shall prosper, and practise, and shall destroy the mighty and the holy people.

25 And through his policy also he shall cause craft to prosper in his hand; and he shall magnify himself in his heart, and by peace shall destroy many: he shall also stand up against the Prince of princes; but he shall be broken without hand.

26 And the vision of the evening and the morning which was told is true: wherefore shut thou up the vision; for it shall be for many days.

27 And I Daniel fainted, and was sick certain days; afterward I rose up, and did the king's business; and I was astonished at the vision, but none understood it.



DANIEL 8 REPEATS & ENLARGES ON DANIEL 2 & 7


Daniel 8:1 mentions the previous vision of Daniel 7.

As this vision of Daniel 8 was given during the reign of the last king of Babylon (Dan 8:1) and the kingdom was just about to be overthrown, the prophecy begins with the Medo-Persian Empire.


Note:

1. The bear of Daniel 7 had one side HIGHER, the Ram of Daniel 8 had one horn HIGHER.

2. The ram is said to be the kingdoms of Media & Persia (Daniel 8:20).

3. In the bear’s mouth were THREE ribs (Daniel 7:5). The Ram of Dan 8 conquered in THREE directions. (cf. Dan 7:5; 8:3-4).

4. The bear of Daniel 7 was followed by a Leopard with FOUR HEADS & WINGS.

5. The Ram of Daniel 8 was followed by a he-Goat with FOUR HORNS that  FLEW. (cf. Daniel 7:6; Daniel 8:5, 8).

6. Daniel 7 & 8 both refer to the “little horn.”

7. In both Daniel 7 & 8 the little horn is seen to:

    a. Rise at the same time in history.

    b. Begin small and become great (Daniel 7:8; 8:9).

    c. Persecute the saints (Daniel 7:25; 8:11, 25).

    d. Exist for lengthy prophetic periods (Daniel 7:25; Daniel 8:14).

    e. Endure the same fate (Daniel 7:26; Daniel 8:25).

Although chapter 7 was written in Aramaic and chapter 9 in Hebrew clearly the little horn in both chapters refers to the same power. Had two different powers been intended different symbols would surely have been used.


THE Judgment IMPLIED - DESCRIBED - LOCATED

1. God appointed a day when the He would judge the world (Acts 17:31).

2. Christians are going to be judged (Rom 14:10; 2 Cor 5:10; Ecc 3:17; 12:13-14).

3. Paul showed that the judgment would be after his time (Acts 24:25).

4. As a result of this judgment Christ determines what rewards all men are to receive

5. And He will return with His rewards (Rev 22:12).

Operating on the repeat & enlarge principle the book of Daniel focuses in on the time of the judgment:

Daniel 2:45 IMPLIES a judgment prior to Christ’s second coming because God does not destroy without first judging.

Daniel 7:9-11 DESCRIBES the judgment as occurring some time AFTER the rise of the little horn but prior to its destruction. Daniel beheld the rise of the little horn and watch TILL the judgment began.

Daniel 8 LOCATES the year that the judgment began at the end of the 2300 days.


Summary of the Prophecy

1. The Ram conquering in three directions - westward, northward and southward.

2. The He-Goat "flying" from the west crushes the Ram, stamps on him and breaks his two horns.

3. At the height of its powers, the He-Goat's great horn is broken. Four others stand up in its place - four kingdoms.

4. The Little Horn arises from one of the four winds of heaven.

5. The Little Horn undergoes a metamorphosis, a change from Imperial ROME to Papal ROME.

6. The 2300 day prophecy is given announcing the Judgment.

7. The Little Horn is destroyed.

A Ram, symbolizing the pagan nation of Medo-Persia, is conquered by a He-Goat, symbolizing the pagan nation of Greece. A Little horn arises which symbolizes the Roman Empire in both its pagan form, the Rome of the Caesars and its Papal form, the ROME of the Popes. The continual spirit of self exaltation in its pagan form, here called the "daily," is "taken away" and replaced by the pagan Papal form, (professed Christianity) here called the "transgression of desolation."


Papal Rome is an earthly ministry and priesthood in competition to Christ's heavenly ministry, judges, condemns and persecutes God's saints, and casts down the truth. A question is asked, "How long?" The answer is unto 2300 days, then shall the sanctuary be cleansed.  The question, "How long?" that is, how long would this Pagan and Papal oppression of God's saints continue.


THE JUDGEMENT

The answer is, unto 2300 days, then shall the sanctuary be cleansed. At the conclusion of the cleansing of the sanctuary the wicked and all continual forms of pagan self exaltation will be destroyed and the saints rewarded. The cleansing of the sanctuary refers to the removal of the sins of God’s people which had been transferred within the sanctuary via the sacrifices.  The cleansing involves a work of judgment.  Daniel 2 implied a Judgment. Daniel 7 described it. Daniel 8 locates it...




Ram Conquering All Before It


Ram pushing westward, northward and southward

Verses 3,4 Then I lifted up mine eyes, and saw, and, behold, there stood before the river a ram which had two horns: and the two horns were high; but one was higher than the other, and the higher came up last. I saw the ram pushing westward, and northward, and southward; so that no beasts might stand before him, neither was there any that could deliver out of his hand; but he did according to his will, and became great.


Goat coming from the west

Verses 5,6 And as I was considering, behold, an he goat came from the west on the face of the whole earth, and touched not the ground: and the goat had a notable horn between his eyes. And he came to the ram that had two horns, which I had seen standing before the river, and ran unto him in the fury of his power.



He-Goat crushes the Ram

He-Goat crushes the Ram

Verse 7 And I saw him come close unto the ram, and he was moved with choler against him, and smote the ram, and brake his two horns: and there was no power in the ram to stand before him, but he cast him down to the ground, and stamped upon him: and there was none that could deliver the ram out of his hand.


He-Goat's Great horn is broken

He-Goat's Great horn is broken

Verse 8 "Therefore the he goat waxed very great:and when he was strong, the great horn was broken; and for it came up four notable ones toward the four winds of heaven."




Identity of the RAM & the He-Goat? 


Verse 15 And it came to pass, when I, even I Daniel, had seen the vision, and sought for the meaning, then, behold, there stood before me as the appearance of a man.


Verse 16 And I heard a man's voice [the voice of Jesus, Gabriel’s Commander] between the banks of Ulai, which called, and said, Gabriel, make this man to understand the vision [Understanding becomes a common theme from this point through Daniel’s book. In verses 17-26 Gabriel explained almost all of the vision but had to interupt his explanation before explaining the 2300 days because the old man Daniel found it all too much to take and “fainted”  (verse 27). Gabriel returned later, as recorded in Daniel 9:21-27, to continue the explanation. In fact it was only by returning that he accomplished what he had been commanded to do because we note that at the end of Daniel 8, Daniel said, “None understood it.”].


Verse 17 So he came near where I stood: and when he came, I was afraid, and fell upon my face: but he said unto me, Understand, O son of man: for at the time of the end shall be the vision [the vision was to reach to the end period of the world.

“the vision concerns the time of the end.” N.I.V.

“the vision is for the time of the end.” R.S.V.

As the vision concerns events at the time of the end it cannot refer as some say to Antiochus who died about 160 years before Christ].


Verse 18 Now as he was speaking with me, I was in a deep sleep on my face toward the ground: but he touched me, and set me upright.


Verse 19 And he said, Behold, I will make thee know what shall be in the last end of the indignation [the period in which God allows His people to be oppressed]: for at the time appointed the end shall be.


Verses 20,21 The ram which thou sawest having two horns are the kings [kingdoms] of Media and Persia [Daniel uses the word king and kingdom interchangeably. See on Dan 8:23] And the rough goat is the king [kingdom] of Grecia: and the great horn that is between his eyes is the first king [Alexander the Great.  “Philip of Macedon [Alexander’s father] never bore the title of king in relation to Greece, he was only the hegemon [chief or leader] of the association of Grecian peoples and cities. Alexander freely used the title king.” W.H. Boulton, Greece and Rome, p73].



Ram is MEDO-PERSIA

Bear is MEDO-PERSIA

He-Goat is GRECIA

Leopard is GRECIA


The bear of Daniel 7 had one side HIGHER, the Ram of Daniel 8 had one horn HIGHER. The Persians were the stronger in this coalition. Darius Medes) and Cyrus (Persians) overthrew Babylon in Daniel chapter 5:31. Cyrus eventually took over from Darius.

The ram is said to be Media & Persia (Daniel 8:20).

The Ram of Daniel 8 conquered in THREE directions. (cf. Daniell 7:5; 8:3-4).

The bear of Daniel 7 had THREE ribs in its mouth (Daniel 7:5) suggesting it devoured three beasts or kingdoms (beasts, a symbol of nations) 

The bear of Daniel 7 was followed by a Leopard with FOUR HEADS & WINGS.  Wings denote speed.

The Ram of Daniel 8 was followed by a He-Goat with FOUR HORNS that "FLEW". (cf. Daniel 7:6; 8:5, 8). The He-Goat was moving so fast in its conquests, it's feet did not touch the ground.



ROME, the Little Horn, emerges


The Great horn of the HE-GOAT symbolising the first King, Alexander the Great, is broken (Alexander dies) and in its place arises four other horns. The Grecian Empire of Alexander did not go to his posterity but was divided among his four generals.


The Four Divisions of Alexanders Empire 301B.C

1. Seleucus

2. Ptolemy

3. Cassander

4. Lysimachus

Daniel 8:9-13, which describe the little horn, have unusual gender changes. Nouns (words for objects) in Hebrew have grammatical gender (they are considered to be either masculine (m), feminine (f), or neuter (m or f). 



The Little Horn

Verse 9 "And out of one of them came forth a little horn, which waxed exceeding great, toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant land." It is a rule in the many languages that use grammatical gender, that the pronouns (words standing for something) must agree with their antecendant nouns (the thing they stand for) in being similarly masculine, feminine, or neuter. e.g. in English we think of a ship (the noun) as feminine and must refer to a ship with the feminine pronoun 'she' and 'her.'

Did the Little horn arise from one of the four horns of Alexander's Empire or from one of the "four winds of heaven", i.e from one of the directions of the compass? Grammatical gender changes favours the little horn emerging from one of the "four winds of heaven", and not from one of the horns of Alexander's empire ruling out Antiochus from the Seleucid line as the little horn. See footnotes 


THE LITTLE HORNS OF DANIEL 7 & 8 ARE THE SAME POWER

(a) The same symbol of a little horn indicates that this is the same power described as a little horn in Daniel chapter 7.

(b) Both begin small and become great (Dan 7:8 & Dan 8:9)

(c) Both are blasphemous (Dan 7:8, 25 & Dan 8:11, 25)

(d) Both persecute the saints (Dan 7:21, 25 & Dan 8:11, 25)

(e) Both endure for long periods of prophetic time (Dan 7:25 & Dan 8:11, 25)

(f) Both suffer a similar fate ((Dan 7:26 & Dan 8:25)

In Daniel and Revelation it is not uncommon to use the one symbol to represent Rome in its Pagan and Papal phases. Note the symbol of the LITTLE HORN in Daniel 8 is used to represent ROME in both its Pagan and Papal forms. In Daniel 7, the fourth beast with ten horns was ROME and out of that fourth beast's head springs forth the little horn, therefore, one can say the same beast represented ROME in its Pagan and Papal forms. Similarly in Daniel 11, the KING of the NORTH is symbolic of both the Rome of the Caesars and Papal Rome.  Likewise in Revelation 12, the Dragon with seven heads and ten horns is a symbol not only of Satan but of Rome which Satan used to try and kill the infant Jesus and also of the persecuting power of Papal Rome as Dragon sends forth a flood after the woman (God's true church) to try and destroy her - One symbol representing the same power in its different phases or forms. 




THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LITTLE HORN DEMONSTRATE IT IS ROME

1. Persia was “great” (verse 4), Greece was “very great” (verse 8) but the Little Horn became greater than either. ROME became “EXCEEDING great.” (verse 9). ROME superseded Greece.


2. The little came from the WEST, grew toward the south, east and toward the pleasant land (Palestine). Rome came from the West conquering South (Egypt 168BC. Made a province in 30BC), East (Syria 65BC) and the pleasant land (Palestine 63BC). 


3. The Little Horn destroyed many of God’s people (verses 10, 24). ROME did.


4. The Little Horn “magnified himself even to the Prince of the host” (verse 11) that is he would “stand up against the Prince of Princes” (verse 25). It was ROME that stood up against Christ and crucified Him. See Acts 4:26-27. 


5. The Little Horn (Rome) came to power in the latter time (verse 23) of the divisions of Greece. ROME did this. The Little horn is to be “broken (destroyed) without hand.” (verse 25) that is destroyed supernaturally, not by human hand. This will occur at the Second Coming (See Daniel 2:45). As the Little Horn stood up against and exist till the Second Coming it cannot refer to any one man. It refers to Rome in its Pagan and Papal phases.


Verse 10 "And it (Rome) waxed great, even to the host of heaven; and it cast down some of the host and of the stars to the ground, and stamped upon them." Verse 24  interprets this,  “...he shall destroy wonderfully, and shall prosper, and practice, and shall destroy the mighty and the holy people.” Rome persecuted and killed many of God’s people. In AD70 Rome slew more than a million Jews and levelled the city of Jerusalem. Destroying is a characteristic of Rome as presented in Daniel.




The DAILY of Daniel 8, 11 & 12



Verse 11 "Yea, he (m) (Rome) magnified [himself] even to the prince of the host, and by (from) him (Pagan Rome) the daily [sacrifice] was taken away, and the place of his sanctuary was cast down"

The prince of the host is the “Prince of princes” (cf. Daniel 8:25), a term similar to the “Lord of lords” (Ps 136:3) and the “King of kings” (Rev 19:16). 

Josh 5:14, margin shows the Prince of the host is the Lord. It was Pagan Rome that stood up against Christ, condemned him and crucified Him (Acts 4:26-27; Ps 2:1)],  Papal Rome has killed many of God’s people as well, which Christ regards as having been against him (Matt 25:40).  Papal Rome has also admitted to having overthrown some of Christ’s teachings.


...and by him (m) [Rome pagan] The margin reads, “from him”, i.e. from Pagan Rome] the daily [sacrifice] was taken away. Because this chapter mentions many items of the sanctuary (Sacrificial animals etc.) some think that the “continual” refers to some aspect of the sanctuary and for this reason most translations add the word “sacrifice” or similar. However the word sacrifice is not in the original. The KJV shows this by placing it in italics.

The "daily" means the "continual."

The words translated “the daily” (Heb. hattamid) are elsewhere translated “the continual.” Hattamid signifies something continual without giving us the subject. 

What is the daily (the continual)?

The Paganism of continual self exaltation.

Supporting the identification of the daily as evil is the fact that Daniel 8 uses the Hebrew gadal, “TO EXALT,” 5 times:

1. First the ram became GREAT (8:4),

2. second, the goat grew VERY GREAT (8:8),

3. third, the little horn (masc.) grew EXCEEDINGLY GREAT (8:9),

4. fourth, the little horn (fem.) EXALTED to heaven (8:9) and

5. fifth, the little horn (masc.) even EXALTED himself to the Prince of the host (8:11). The spirit of CONTINUAL SELF-EXALTATION is a major theme in Daniel 8, and even his whole book! There is a continual competition among powers to exalt themselves above each other and even above God. 


Dan 8:11. “Even unto the Prince of the Host he exalted himself: and (from) marginal reading] him the daily was taken away…” This pagan spirit of self exaltation began in heaven with Lucifer and is manifested in every King / Kingdom of Bible Prophecy. Contrast this with the selflessness and humility of Christ.




The PAGANISM of SELF EXALTATION

Lucifer (The fallen angle called Satan)

LUCIFER (the Fallen Angel called Satan)

Isaiah 14:12-14 "How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations! For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God: I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation, in the sides of the north: I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the most High."

Five times we see Lucifer the fallen angel exalt himself.

1. I will ascend into heaven

2. I will exalt my throne above the stars of God:

3. I will sit also upon the mount.....,

4. I will ascend above the heights of the clouds;

5. I will be like the most High."




The CHRISTIANITY of SELF-LESSNESS

"...he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross." Phil 2:8

CHRIST


Philippians 2:5-8

"Let this mind be in you, which was also in Christ Jesus: Who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God: But made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men:

And being found in fashion as a man, he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross."

Five times we see Christ humble himself in the spirit of selflessness.

I. made himself of no reputation,

2. took upon him the form of a servant,

3. made in the likeness of men:

4. being found in fashion as a man,

5. he humbled himself, and became obedient




Taken away

The word translated "TAKEN AWAY" in Daniel 8:11 is the Heb. "ruwm", which means lift up, exalt or take up every other time Daniel used it (Dan 11:12, 36; 12:7). The little horn would TAKE UP, LIFT UP, EXALT the continual (DAILY)

The word translated “TAKE AWAY”  in Daniel 11:31; 12:11 is from the Hebrew "suwr", which means to literally take away. If there is a subtle truth in Daniel’s use of two similar but different words what is it?

Papal Rome by the help of its forces TOOK AWAY the supremacy of previous self exalting PAGAN systems (Daniel 11:31; 12:11) while itself TAKING UP the essence of self exaltation of the same powers (Daniel 8:11). Paganism while seen to be vanquished continued on ink another form - Papal Rome.


A counterfeit - By His death Christ TOOK AWAY the continual ministry of the Levitical priesthood while TAKING UP the spirit of self-sacrifice into His continual heavenly ministry, so the Papacy took away previous self-exalting systems while taking up the spirit of self-exaltation.

From whom was the day taken away? From the Prince of the host or from the little horn?

Verse 11 shows that the daily was taken away from the one who had the place of their sanctuary (miqdash) cast down.

verse 11 ...and the place [Heb. makown] of his sanctuary was cast down.

Note that THE PLACE of his sanctuary, NOT the sanctuary itself, was cast down.

The word place is from the Hebrew. makown, is translated - place (14), habitation (2), foundations (1). Strongs Concordance.

The word sanctuary in verse 11 is from the Hebrew miqdash.


The word sanctuary in verse 14 is from the Hebrew quodesh.

Miqdash is consistently used in the OT to refer to earthly sanctuaries, either true or pagan. On the other hand, qodesh is used consistently for holy sanctuaries, either the true on earth or the heavenly.

Miqdash not qodesh is used in 8:11 indicating an earthly sanctuary, therefore, excluding the possibility that the phrase in 8:11 (“the place of his sanctuary was cast down”) pertains to Christ’s heavenly sanctuary. 

Miqdash is a cultic term used in a counterfeit cultic setting in the passage in Daniel 8.

This confirms that the one who has “the place of his sanctuary” cast down; the one from whom “‘the daily’ is taken away,” cannot be the Prince of the host but must be the pagan Rome power. 

Furthermore the sanctuary being cast down described in Daniel 8:11 is also mentioned again in Daniel 11:31 where the sanctuary is seen to be associated with a fortress - “sanctuary of strength (ma’oz - “fortress”).”

Nowhere in the Old Testament is the heavenly sanctuary associated with a fortress which also argues against the sanctuary here being Christ’s heavenly sanctuary. 

The over-arching theme in Daniel 8 is the great controversy between God’s people and the pagan/horn powers of Satan; nevertheless there is a competition between the two phases of Rome

“Cast down,” Heb. shalak. AV - cast 77, cast out 15, cast away 11, cast down 11, cast forth 4, cast off 2, adventured 1, hurl 1, misc 3; 125. Strong’s Concordance. The place of his, Rome’s, sanctuary, i.e. the city of Rome, was “cast down,” i.e. given up when Constantine shifted the capital to Constantinople. In this way the old seat of the Ceasars, the city of Rome, was effectively given to the Pope.

The place of his sanctuary cast down.

“The removal of the capital of the Empire from Rome to Constantinople in 330AD, left the Western Church, practically free from imperial power, to develop its own form of organization. The Bishop of Rome, in the SEAT of the Caesars, was now the greatest man in the West and was soon [when the barbarians overran the empire] forced to become the political as well as the spiritual head.” A.C. Flick, The Rise of the Mediaeval Church [1959], p168-169. Emphasis added.

“Pagan Rome was remodeled into papal Rome. ‘The PLACE of his sanctuary,’ or worship, the city of Rome, was CAST DOWN. The seat of government was removed by Constantine to Constantinople, A. D. 330. This same transaction is brought to view in Revelation 13: 2, where it is said that the dragon, pagan Rome, gave to the beast, papal Rome, his seat, the city of Rome.” Uriah Smith, Daniel and the Revelation, 161.



verse 12 And an host was given [him] against the daily [sacrifice]...

A “host,” a military force  (See Strongs Concordance) was given to the Little Horn in its Papal form.

Daniel 11 repeats this clue identifying this “host” as “arms.”

“And ARMS shall stand on his part, and they shall pollute the sanctuary of strength, and shall take away the daily [sacrifice], and they shall place the abomination that maketh desolate.” Dan 11:31. The word “ARMS” is from the Hebrew "zeroah" which Daniel used in the same chapter to refer to military forces (Dan 11:15; 11:22).  A military host, or arms, was given in support of Papal Rome and this military host took away the daily. Clovis, king of the Franks, was the first barbarian king to convert to Catholicism. He gave the support of the Franks to the Papacy against all pre-papal forms of self-exaltation. This shows that the daily is something military forces could take away.


verse 12 ...by reason of transgression...

It was through the transgression that arms were enabled to support the Little Horn. This was the transgression of uniting the Church with the State power which she used to further her own ends (cf. Rev 17:1-2).


Besides the Franks, the Emperors of Eastern Rome also aided the developing Papal church and helped to  “take away” anti-Papal forms of self-exaltation and set up the Papacy (See on Daniel 11:31; 12:11). 


“The thing that hath been, it [is that] which shall be...” Ecc 1:9. As the Papacy came to power in the past through the transgression of uniting with the State powers so it will be again. See on Rev 13. 


The Franks (French), ONE OF THE TEN horns, gave their support to the Papacy in the past before they destroyed the Papal State in 1798.

Rev 17:12-13 foretells that ALL TEN horns will give their support to the Papacy in the future before all ten destroy her (Rev 17:16).

Similar scenes will take place again as the Little horn, Papal Rome helped along by ARMS will be enthroned again.


THE CHURCH WILL ONCE AGAIN UNITE WITH THE STATE AND ALL OPPOSITION WILL BE TAKEN AWAY.

The transgression of investing the church with state power resulted in the papal supremacy. So it will be again. To establish the second papal supremacy, the healing of the deadly wound the ‘Protestant’ U.S.A. and  the 10 horns will  “give their power and strength to the beast.” (Rev 17:13; Rev 13:15-17). The church will be invested with state power and all opposition to papal supremacy will be overthrown. Even now the collapse of communism and the crushing of Moslem power has begun.


An army was given to Papal Rome against the continual self-exalting behaviour manifested by pagan forces. The battle matured during the period of AD 496 to 508. In this time Clovis, the king of the Franks, became the first of the ten horns of Daniel 7, to become Catholic and is called the “Eldest Son of the Church.” He used the sword to expand the power of the Papacy. This culminated in AD 508 with the subjection of the Arborici, the Roman garrisons in the West, Brittany, the Bergundians, and Visigoths. The Arian Visigoths represented the epitome of self-exalting behaviour against God in the view of the Roman church. The “host” was an army, led by Clovis, which united with the church (Papal Rome). This “host” represented a counterfeit army in contrast to the genuine host of heaven mentioned in verses 10 & 13, the saints of the Most High. 


verse12 ...and it cast down the truth to the ground; and it practiced, and prospered.

The Papacy cast down the truth by:

1. Claiming to be the mediator between God and men in place of the “ONE mediator... the man Christ Jesus,” (1Tim 2:5).

2. Establishing a counterfeit priestly ministry on earth.

3. Claiming to be the dispenser of forgiveness and salvation. 

4. Rejecting many Biblical teachings and introducing many unbiblical teachings such as celibacy and the confessional, etc.

5. Elevated Mary to an unscriptural position.

6. Claiming that Christ took a human nature unlike ours, a sinless human nature.

7. Claiming to have changed the Sabbath to Sunday (cf. Daniel 7:25).

8. Persecuting (trod underfoot v 13) those who held and taught Biblical truth.

9. The Papacy made it illegal for the laity to own a Bible.

10. Made illegal the Bible in the people's common language and burned those Bibles that they confiscated:

The Council of Tarragona of 1234, in its second canon, ruled that: "No one may possess the books of the Old and New Testaments in the Romance language, and if anyone possesses them he must turn them over to the local bishop within eight days after promulgation of this decree, so that they may be burned lest, be he a cleric or a layman, he be suspected until he is cleared of all suspicion." -D. Lortsch, Historie de la Bible en France, 1910, p.14.

In 1229 the Council of Toulouse put the Bible on the index of Forbidden books stating, "We prohibit also the permitting of the laity, to have the books of the Old and New Testament, unless any one should wish to have a psalter or breviary for divine service...But we strictly forbid the above mentioned books in the vulgar tongue." (Allix, Ecclesiastical History, II, p. 213).

While the little horn LIFTED UP the daily it CAST DOWN the truth.

The Papacy cast down the truth.

“As foretold by prophecy, the papal power CAST DOWN the truth to the ground. The law of God was trampled in the dust, while the traditions and customs of men were EXALTED” (The Great Controversy, p. 65).


verse 13 Then I heard one saint speaking, and another saint said unto that certain [saint]

which spake...

That certain saint which spake is literally “Palmoni” (See margin).

“The Hebrew word, Palmoni, is a contracted word from Pele - wonderful (See Isa 9:6), and Mana - numbered (See Dan 5:25-26) - “Wonderful Numberer.” Christ is the Wonderful numberer and the fact that he gave this prophecy personally shows its great importance.


verse 13 ...How long [shall be] the vision [concerning] the daily [sacrifice], and the transgression of desolation, to give both the sanctuary and the host to be trodden under foot?

The word “vision” here is from the Hebrew chazown. It was used in verse 1 to describe the entire vision of the Ram, the Goat, the little horn, the daily and the transgression of desolation.


TWO DESOLATING POWERS - the "daily" (continual) desolation and the "transgression of desolation"

Note, these are two evil powers which tread underfoot the host and the sanctuary. They are certainly not on God's side. Hence the DAILY cannot refer to Christ's ministry in the heavenly sanctuary or any such interpretation which appears favourable to God. Some have even interpreted the DAILY (continual) as the ten commandments.

The daily - the continual spirit of self-exaltation in its Pagan form had trodden on God’s Old Testament people and sanctuary.

The transgression of desolation - the continual spirit of self exaltation in its Papal form  trod on God’s New Testament people and Christ’s heavenly sanctuary by persecuting God's people and setting up a counterfeit earthly ministry in place of Christ's. 


The sanctuary (Heb. Quodesh) in heaven was trodden underfoot in the same way many today can and do trample Jesus underfoot. Paul wrote in Heb 10:29 “Of how much sorer punishment, suppose ye, shall he be thought worthy, who hath trodden under foot the Son of God, and hath counted the blood of the covenant, wherewith he was sanctified, an unholy thing, and hath done despite unto the Spirit of grace?" 


The word sanctuary here is not the same word for sanctuary in verse 11. Here the word sanctuary is from the Hebrew quodesh, which ALWAYS refers to God’s sanctuary whereas the sanctuary whose “place” was cast down (verse 11) is from the Heb. miqdash which can refer to Pagan sanctuaries. The use of two different words for sanctuary in verses in such close proximity indicates a difference. Likewise verse 11 refers to a host which supports the Little horn whereas verse 13 refers to a different host which the Little Horn trod on.


Verse 13 ...to give both the sanctuary and the host to be trodden under foot? 

Two sanctuaries, two hosts.

This verse refers to GOD’S sanctuary and GOD’S host which were trodden underfoot.

Verse 11 mentions the “PLACE” of another sanctuary being cast down, not a sanctuary being trodden underfoot, and a HOST that was not trodden underfoot but was supporting the Little horn. 



The question is asked as to how long shall God's people be persecuted and God's sanctuary be trodden underfoot by the “daily,” [desolation] and the “transgression of desolation,” -  two evil powers, Paganism and Popery  both manifesting the spirit of self-exaltation.

The answer:  verse 14 "And he said unto me, Unto two thousand and three hundred days; then shall the sanctuary be cleansed."



The way the Papacy had judged God’s people would end when the true judgment sat. 


At the end of the 2300 days God’s sanctuary would be cleansed and this cleansing would conclude in the little horn being destroyed in the flames as shown prophetically in Daniel chapters 2, 7, 8 and 11


verse 14  "And he said unto me, Unto two thousand and three hundred days; then shall the sanctuary be cleansed."

The question was asked on Daniel’s behalf and Palmoni (Christ v 13) directed the answer to Daniel. The fact that Christ Himself gave the answer shows the great importance of this prophetic period.


“Unto 2300 days” is the answer to the question, how long the vision and the suffering of God’s people and sanctuary. As the vision began in the days of Medo-Persia and reached all the way to the “time of the end” (v 17) the “2300 days” must be symbolic of a much larger period of time. 

Evidently at the end of the 2300 days events were to occur which would lead to the end of suffering and the cleansing of the sanctuary. The sanctuary (Heb. miqdash) to be cleansed is that which the little horn trodden under foot (v 13) - i.e. God’s sanctuary.


What does the cleansing of the sanctuary refer to?

The priests of the sanctuary on earth served “unto the example and shadow of heavenly things.” Heb 8:5. 

The annual cleansing of the earthly sanctuary from the sins that had been confessed into it throughout the year, pointed forward to the cleansing of the heavenly sanctuary.

The cleansing of both the earthly & heavenly sanctuaries is plainly taught in Heb 9:23 “[It was] therefore necessary that the patterns of things in the heavens [the earthly sanctuary] should be PURIFIED [CLEANSED] with these [animals blood]; but the heavenly things themselves with better sacrifices than these [Christ’s blood].


The cleansing was not of physical impurity because it was done with blood. It was therefore a cleansing of sin. As the sins of Israel were transferred into the sanctuary throughout the year by the blood of the sacrifices, so the sins of all the professed followers of Christ are transferred to heaven’s sanctuary by the blood of Christ. As the earthly sanctuary was cleansed on the Day of Atonement (Lev 16 & 23) by the removal of the sin by which it had been polluted, so the cleansing of heaven’s sanctuary will be by the removal or blotting out of the sins there recorded. This requires an investigation of the books of record (Dan 7:10) to see who, through repentance of sin and faith in Christ, are entitled to the benefits of Christ’s final Atonement. As those in Israel who were found unfaithful were cut off when the earthly sanctuary was cleansed, so Christians found unfaithful in the investigative judgment will have their names blotted out of the book of life. (See Lev 23:29; Dan 12:1; Rev 3:5). 

The cleansing began at the end of the 2300 days. However, in the explanation that follows Gabriel did not give the start of this period. See the 70 week prophecy of Daniel chapter 9.



PAPAL ROME DESTROYED


At the end of the 2300 days God’s sanctuary would be cleansed and this cleansing would conclude in the little horn being destroyed in the flames as shown prophetically in Daniel chapters 2, 7, 8 and 11


Daniel 2:34 "Thou sawest till that a stone was cut out without hands, which smote the image upon his feet that were of iron and clay, and brake them to pieces." The feet of Iron & Clay represent Papal Rome. The Stone crushes it & the whole image with it.

Daniel 7:24-26 "But the judgment shall sit, and they shall take away his dominion, to consume and to destroy it unto the end." The destruction of the little horn (Papal Rome) of Daniel 7.

Daniel 8:25 "...he shall also stand up against the Prince of princes; but he shall be broken without hand." The little horn of Daniel 8 representing Rome both Pagan and Papal comes to its end.

Daniel 11:45 "...yet he shall come to his end, and none shall help him."  The King of the North representing Papal Rome comes to his end and none shall help him.




The DAILY Of Daniel 11 & 12


ARMS SHALL STAND ON HIS PART 

Military forces remove the daily TO SET UP the Papacy

“Arms” [Heb. zeroah, military forces] took away “the daily” [literally “the continual”]. (cf. Dan 12:11). In this verse the term “take away” is from the Hebrew suwr and means “remove” while the thing removed still exists (cf. Gen 38:14; 8:13; Deut 17:20). In Daniel 8:12,  "And an host was given him against the daily sacrifice by reason of transgression, and it cast down the truth to the ground; and it practised, and prospered.", a host or support was given the little horn, Papal Rome, against the DAILY. This Host helped the Papacy to power and it cast the truth to the ground and it practised and prospered. In Daniel 11:31 we see arms supporting the Papacy, the King of the North, in literally taking away (suwr), removing the DAILY to set up the abomination that maketh Desolate, the Papal System of worship.  The DAILY seen outwardly to be removed (suwr) in Daniel 11 but continuing in the Papal Worship in Daniel 8, Paganism being exalted, lifted up (ruwm) etc.  under the veneer of Christianity.


ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION

  1. His supporters took away the “daily” (11:31)

  2. “Arms” support him (11:31)

  3. Destroyed God’s people by sword, flame and captivity (11:32)

  4. Had power many ‘days.’ (11:33)

  5. Speaks blasphemes (11:36)


THE LITTLE HORN - PAPAL PHASE 

  1. His supporters took away the “daily” (8:11)

  2. “Host” support him (8:12)

  3. Made war upon God’s saints (7:25)

  4. Power for 1260 ‘days.’ (7:25)

  5. Spoke great words against God (7:25)


PAPAL ROME 

  1. Papal supporters took away the previous forms of self-exaltation.

  2. Military support given the Papacy.

  3. Martyred Christians in the Inquisition etc.

  4. Reigned from 538-1798AD.

  5. Claims to have changed God’s law AND ABLE TO FORGIVE SINS. See Catholic Catechisms.



The Franks (French), under their king Clovis, were the first barbarian nation of Europe to pledge their support to defend and establish the Catholic faith. Their military “arms” overthrew competing forms of self-exaltation, primarily Pagan and Arian and helped “place” (“set up” Dan 12:11 margin) the “abomination that maketh desolate” - the self-exalting church/state power known as the Papacy that kills those it perceives as a threat when it can.  See “The Daily” in the Appendix to Dan 8.


The abomination of desolation is NOT Antiochus Epiphanes, a Syrian King

Some claim that the abomination of desolation was the Syrian king Antiochus Epiphanes. There are many reasons why this is not the case but more importantly because Jesus said “the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel” would appear AFTER His time (Matt 24:15) whereas Antiochus died 164 years BEFORE Christ. 


verse 31 Arms polluted the sanctuary of strength

The word “sanctuary” is from the Hebrew “miqdash,” which can refer to pagan temples (Isa 16:12; Eze 28:18.)

The word “strength” is from the Hebrew maowz, which is repeatedly used to refer to the forts and fortresses, the leading cities, of pagan powers. (See Dan 11:7, 10, 19, 38, 39). The temple of Pagan Rome was polluted by the arms of Papal Rome. 

Incidentally “Rome” in the Greek New Testament is from the Greek “Rhome” and means “STRENGTH.” 

No where in the OT is the heavenly sanctuary associated with ma’oz (a fortress). The sanctuary (miqdash) in 11:31 is clearly used in the context of a military setting along with ma’oz pertaining to pagan military activity. It has been shown that miqdash applies only to earthly sanctuaries of either a pagan or holy variety. Since its use in Daniel 8 is in a counterfeit cultic setting and in 11:31 miqdash is used in a military context along with ma’oz, we may conclude that the sanctuary in 11:31 is a counterfeit pagan sanctuary fortress.


Arms shall stand on his part = Arms (Heb. zeroah) - Military forces.

"Zeroah" is used to refer to military forces in Dan 11:15, 22.  The barbarians, that had established kingdoms in the territory of Western Rome, converted to the Catholic faith. Clovis, king of the Franks (French) was the first to convert in AD496 and he give his military arms to support the Papacy, against their former pagan religion.  Papal Rome received this military host as a result of transgression (Daniel 8:12), by uniting the church with the State. By this act of spiritual fornication the church became a spiritual harlot. (compare Rev 17:1-2).


Pollute (Heb. chalal) the sanctuary of strength = The city of Pagan Rome was polluted or defiled by Papal Rome. Pagan places can be profaned.  Of the king of Tyre (who represents Satan) we read, "Thou hast DEFILED (Heb. chalal) thy sanctuaries by the multitude of thine iniquities…" Eze 28:18. Note: These are HIS sanctuaries plural, not God's sanctuary, and they were defiled or polluted. This was not merely attempted. Chalal is used in Scripture as meaning "wounded" Isa. 53:5; "slain" Ezek. 32:26); Begin; Profane or defile.  See Strongs Concordance.


Sanctuary of strength = The word “sanctuary” is from the Hebrew “miqdash,” which can refer to pagan temples (Isa 16:12; Eze 28:18). 

STRENGTH is from the Hebrew maoz, which refers to fortresses elsewhere in this chapter (Daniel 11:31:7, 10, 19, 38, 39). The word “Rome” in the New Testament is from the Greek “Rhome” and means “STRENGTH.” Rome was the iron in the image of chapter 2. Daniel speaks of "the STRENGTH of the iron." Dan 2:41.


Shall take away the daily = The daily was taken away by "arms" that is, military forces. 

Take away the daily = Heb. suwr, "turn aside, take away" the thing still exists but not in its original setting or form.

The words "taken away" in Daniel 8:11 are from the Hebrew ruwm which means "lift up, take up, take away." Arms took away the continual desolation in its pagan form while the spirit was taken up and continued in the the papal form.


Abomination that maketh desolate = The Papal power. It is an abominable system of worship masquerading as Christianity and a desolating power in that it is responsible for the slaughter of millions of God's Bible believing people.


In AD508 the turning aside of the daily was finally complete. Now the Papacy would surpass, supercede and transcend that same spirit as manifested by the pagan forces. Between AD508 and AD538 the setting up of the Papacy commenced. The joint action of the union of church and state, first with Clovis (AD496-AD508) and again with emperor Justinian in AD533-AD538 brought the Papal Rome to full power.




The DAILY and the 1290 & 1335 Prophetic Days


The Time of the end 

Verse 4 of Daniel 12 refers to the “time of the end” mentioned in Daniel 11:35. Daniel 11:30-35 describes the period of Papal supremacy which lasted “even to the time of the end.” As the Papal supremacy ended when the Papacy was abolished in 1798, the time of the end began in 1798. 

Since 1798 the book of Daniel has been unsealed, and knowledge of the prophecies has increased. By the increase of knowledge a people will be prepared to stand in the latter days. 


The 1290 “days” began at the taking away of the “daily” which occurred BEFORE the time of the end. (compare Daniel 8:11-12, Daniel 11:31). 


As the “daily” was taken away BEFORE the time of the end (See Dan 11:31-35), the 1290 began BEFORE the time of the end. i.e. before 1798.


As the daily was taken away BEFORE the setting up of Papal Rome, the “abomination that maketh desolate” (Dan 11:31-35), the 1290 began BEFORE 538 when the Papal power was set up.


The “daily” that was taken away parallels the “withholder” that Paul spoke of in 2Thess 2.  

The “daily” was taken away to reveal the “abomination that maketh desolation.” The “withholder” was “taken out of the way” to reveal the “man of sin.”

Paul spoke guardedly of a power existing in his day which had to be “TAKEN OUT OF THE WAY” in order to set up the “man of sin” who would sit as lord over God’s church. (read 2Thess 2). By the MAN of sin we understand the reigning Pope is meant.

What power in Paul’s day withheld the rise of Papal Rome? Answer: Pagan Rome. 

Therefore Pagan Rome was the “withholder” or the “daily” which had to be “taken away” in order to set up the man of sin.


“The withholding power in 2 Thessalonians 2:6 was the Roman Empire. I grant this, for all the ancient writers so speak of it.” John Henry Cardinal Newman (Roman Catholic) (1801-1890), Discussions, p 49.

The “daily” was taken away “TO SET UP” the abomination of desolation - the Papacy (see Daniel 12:11 margin). 

As the 1290 days began with events to SET UP the Papacy, the 1290 “days” would apparently end with the ABOLISHING of the Papacy which occurred in 1798.



SETTING UP Papal Rome => 1290 ‘days’ => ABOLISHING the Papacy


In order to reach from before the Papacy was set up to its abolition in 1798 the 1290 “days” must here represent years, as they do in many other prophetic periods in Daniel.

See (Eze 4:6; Num 14:34).


Uriah Smith "The Biblical Institute: The Vision of Daniel 8

By working backward 1290 years from 1798, when the Papacy was abolished, we see that the 1290 must have begun in 508. (AD508 + 1290 years = 1798). 


In AD508 “arms” (armies, Clovis, King of the Franks) supporting the Papacy took away anti papal resistance to such an extent that the dominance of the Papacy was assured.


verse 12: The 1335 days

Another prophetic time period is given. The faithful would need to “wait” till the end of the 1335.  “Waiteth” indicates that the 1335 extended beyond the end of the 1290. 


Like the 1290 the “days” must symbolize years (Eze 4:6; Num 14:34). 


Beginning with the taking away of the daily in AD508, the 1335 extended to the year 1843/44. In that very year the proclamation was given that “the hour of God’s judgment is come.” See on Rev 14:7; Daniel 8:14.


The fact that the 1290 and 1335 both reach significant events if begun in AD508 helps confirm that AD508 is the correct date for the taking away of the daily.


verse 12 Blessed is he that waiteth, and cometh to the thousand three hundred and five and thirty days. 

verse 13  But go thou thy way till the end be: for thou shalt rest, and stand in thy lot at the end of the days. 


The blessing at the end of the 1335

The end of the 1335 would see a blessing.  

Jesus said to the early church, “blessed [are] your eyes, for they see: and your ears, for they hear.” (Matt 13:16-17). As a revelation of a new truth was a blessing to the early church, so those who witnessed the end of the 1335 were also blessed with the revelation of a new truth. The message that the hour of God’s Judgment had come was first given in 1843-44 (Rev 14:7), and was a blessing to those who saw and proclaimed it (cf. Rev 14:13).


“Christ said, “Blessed are your eyes, for they see; and your ears, for they hear. For verily I say unto you, That many prophets and righteous men have desired to see those things which ye see, and have not seen them; and to hear those things which ye hear, and have not heard them” [Matt. 13:16, 17]. BLESSED are the eyes which saw the things that were seen in 1843 and 1844.”  E.G. White, Manuscript Release Vol. 21, p437.


The end of the prophetic periods

In answer to the question, “How long,” (verse 6) Jesus raised His hands, swore by Him that liveth forever and ever and gave three prophetic periods: 1260, 1290, 1335, and Daniel wrote them in his little book.


In Revelation 10 John was permitted to behold the end of these periods. He saw Christ with the little book of Daniel open in one hand, raising the other hand, and swearing by Him that liveth forever and ever that there should be “time no longer.” The parallels show that this refers to the end of the prophetic PERIODS given to Daniel.


The time prophecies ended in 1844. 

There are still some prophetic periods to be fulfilled but none give definite dates (eg the 1000 years of Revelation 20; the “one hour” and “one day” of Revelation 16, 17, 18). 


The day / year principle still exists. The “day” in which Babylon suffers a famine (Rev 18:8) is obviously symbolic.

The people of God will not have another message which specifies a definite date. 


verse 13: Rest and stand in thy lot.

Daniel died and rests in the grave. Today, in his open book, he stands in his lot, bearing his testimony which was opened to our understanding at the end of the days. The days are ended - i.e. the prophetic days are ENDED.


In Daniel 8, the DAILY was "taken away" (ruwm) meaning taken up, lifted or exalted by the little horn. Papal Rome exalted / lifted up or took upon itself the Paganism of ROME.  Hence Paganism hidden under the veil of professed Christianity continued in the Papal Worship.  In Daniel 2 we see the transition from ROME to Papal ROME in the legs of Iron representing Imperial ROME to the feet of Iron & Clay representing Papal Rome, a mixing of the Paganism of Rome with professed Biblical Christianity.

In Daniel 11, The DAILY was literally taken away (suwr) to establish the Papacy. Arms or military forces helped establish Papal Rome on its throne.





FOOTNOTES

Did the Little Horn arise form one of the horns of Alexander's Empire or from one of the four winds of heaven?

“The English translation, ‘Out of one of them’ . . . obscures and smoothes out the actual Hebrew construction. The sentence actually opens with two prepositional phrases. Translated literally the sentence reads, ‘and from the one from them . . .’, etc. The reason why it is important to notice this literal construction is that it provides a precise parallel to the gender of the elements found in the last phrase of v 8. This can best be shown by transposing the first phrase of v 9 to line up beneath the last phrase of v 8 with these elements in parallel columns. Such a procedure presents the following alignment:


Fem.                                                                     Masc.

v8 ‘to the four winds                                          of the heavens’

le arba ruhot                                                       hasamayim

v9 min-ha ahat                                                   mehem

‘from the one                                                      from them’


“When this procedure is carried out, it can be seen that the gender of the first two elements in v 9 (‘one/them’) lines up perfectly with the gender of the last two elements at the end of v 8 (‘winds/heavens’).

“In writing his visions Daniel simply broke up the construct chain at the end of v 8 (‘the four winds of the heavens’) and distributed its two elements to two separate prepositional phrases at the beginning of v 9 (‘from the one/from them’). This is not poetic parallelism; it is syntactic parallelism in which the gender of the elements in the second statement parallels the gender of the elements in the first, or preceding, statement. “Thus the antecedent of ‘them’ in the phrase ‘from them’ (v 9), is neither ‘winds’ nor ‘horns,’ but ‘heavens.’ Since ‘heavens’ is masculine by gender and treated as a plural in biblical Hebrew, according to the verbs and adjectives used with it, there is perfect agreement in gender and number with the masculine plural pronoun ‘them.’ It is not necessary to resort to emendations to bring the text into line with one’s preconceptions about where the little horn came from. The feminine ‘one’ of v 9 refers back to the feminine ‘winds’ of v 9. The text discloses the origin clearly enough: it came from one of the four winds of the heavens, that is, from one of the directions of the compass. “From this understanding of the syntax in vs 8-9, it is evident that when the little horn came onto the scene of action, it did not come from the Seleucid horn nor from the other three. In the pictorial vision it is simply seen as coming from one of the compass directions. Thus the syntax of this statement does not support the contention that the little horn developed from the Selucid horn/kingdom.”  William H. Shea, MD, Ph.D., Biblical Research Institute, Selected Studies on Prophetic Interpretation , 1:42–3, emphasis original.


In this passage in Hebrew the pronouns for the little horn alternate back and forth from masculine (m) to feminine (f). It appears that as the little horn represents Rome in both its Pagan & Papal phases in verses 9-12, Daniel, through an inspired use of gender, distinguishes between the those things done by Pagan & Papal Rome. In verses 9-12 he appears to use the masculine pronouns for Pagan Rome and the feminine for Papal Rome. 



PAGANISM

BABYLON

MEDO-PERSIA

GRECIA

ROME

PAPAL ROME

PROTESTANT ROME


(to be continued)



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