Daniel Chapter 7 - The Little Horn

Updated: Dec 28, 2019

"...the fourth beast shall be the fourth kingdom..."



Introduction & Overview of Daniel chapters 2 & 7


Prophecy follows the repeat & enlarge principle. The prophecy of Daniel 2 is repeated and enlarged upon in Daniel 7, 8 & 11. In Daniel 7 the fourth beast is said to be the fourth kingdom - Daniel 7:23.  Allowing Scripture to interpret itself, the mention of kingdoms here in Daniel 7 can only be referring to their first mention in Daniel chapter 2.


Hence if the fourth beast is the fourth kingdom, then the third, second and first beasts are symbols of the third, second and first kingdoms of the Daniel 2 image. The fourth kingdom in Daniel 2 was ROME, hence the fourth beast of Daniel 7 is symbolic of ROME. We saw that the Iron & Clay of the feet in Daniel 2 was symbolic of ROME, the state mixed with religion, the latter represented by the CLAY.


We identified the iron & clay as the union of church & state in the form of the ROMAN Catholic Church and its long succession of Popes. Point is if the fourth beast is the fourth kingdom, then somewhere in the fourth beast must lie the clue to the religio-political system of Papal ROME, the union of church and state (IRON & CLAY) as found in the image of Daniel chapter 2.


Daniel 7 then identifies the so-called "IRON & CLAY" of Daniel 2 in the fourth beast with added details as to the sort of power it is with some very startling revelations.  Be prepared to hear some things which may be quite shocking as the Scripture outlines in prophetic detail the identity of the Papal system, the little horn of Daniel chapter 7.


Daniel 2 contains four kingdoms.

In Daniel 2 the fourth kingdom is divided.

Daniel 2 is the image of a man

In Daniel 2 the image is destroyed after the division.

In Daniel 2 the kingdom of God is set up at the end.

Daniel 2 deals largely with political changes.  The four beasts in Daniel 7 parallel the four metals in the image of Daniel 2 and represent the same four kingdoms: Babylon; Medo Persia; Grecia and Rome.

In Daniel 7 the focus of attention moves toward the last period of earth’s history. The judgment is described as occurring some time before the fourth beast is destroyed. 


Daniel 7 contains four kingdoms.

In Daniel 7 the fourth kingdom is divided.

In Daniel 7 the little horn has the eyes of a man.

In Daniel 7:  4th beast is destroyed after the division

In Daniel 7 the kingdom of God is set up at the end.

Daniel 7, like the rest of the book, was given to show the people of God their part in the great controversy between Christ & Satan. The efforts of Satan to destroy them through to their final victory are revealed.




Daniel chapter 7


7:1    In the first year of Belshazzar king of Babylon Daniel had a dream and visions of his head upon his bed: then he wrote the dream, [and] told the sum of the matters.  

 7:2    Daniel spake and said, I saw in my vision by night, and, behold, the four winds of the heaven strove upon the great sea.  

 7:3    And four great beasts came up from the sea, diverse one from another.  

 7:4    The first [was] like a lion, and had eagle's wings: I beheld till the wings thereof were plucked, and it was lifted up from the earth, and made stand upon the feet as a man, and a man's heart was given to it.  

 7:5    And behold another beast, a second, like to a bear, and it raised up itself on one side, and [it had] three ribs in the mouth of it between the teeth of it: and they said thus unto it, Arise, devour much flesh.  

 7:6    After this I beheld, and lo another, like a leopard, which had upon the back of it four wings of a fowl; the beast had also four heads; and dominion was given to it.  

 7:7    After this I saw in the night visions, and behold a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron teeth: it devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with the feet of it: and it [was] diverse from all the beasts that [were] before it; and it had ten horns.  

 7:8    I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among them another little horn, before whom there were three of the first horns plucked up by the roots: and, behold, in this horn [were] eyes like the eyes of man, and a mouth speaking great things.   

 7:9    I beheld till the thrones were cast down, and the Ancient of days did sit, whose garment [was] white as snow, and the hair of his head like the pure wool: his throne [was like] the fiery flame, [and] his wheels [as] burning fire.  

 7:10    A fiery stream issued and came forth from before him: thousand thousands ministered

unto him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him: the judgment was set, and the books were opened.  

 7:11    I beheld then because of the voice of the great words which the horn spake: I beheld [even] till the beast was slain, and his body destroyed, and given to the burning flame.  

 7:12    As concerning the rest of the beasts, they had their dominion taken away: yet their lives were prolonged for a season and time.  

 7:13    I saw in the night visions, and, behold, [one] like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him.  

 7:14    And there was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and languages, should serve him: his dominion [is] an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom [that] which shall not be destroyed.  

 7:15    I Daniel was grieved in my spirit in the midst of [my] body, and the visions of my head troubled me.  

 7:16    I came near unto one of them that stood by, and asked him the truth of all this. So he told me, and made me know the interpretation of the things.  

 7:17    These great beasts, which are four, [are] four kings, [which] shall arise out of the earth.  

 7:18    But the saints of the most High shall take the kingdom, and possess the kingdom for ever, even for ever and ever.  

7:19    Then I would know the truth of the fourth beast, which was diverse from all the others, exceeding dreadful, whose teeth [were of] iron,

and his nails [of] brass; [which] devoured, brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with his feet;

7:20    And of the ten horns that [were] in his head, and [of] the other which came up, and before whom three fell; even [of] that horn that had eyes, and a mouth that spake very great things, whose look [was] more stout than his fellows.  

 7:21    I beheld, and the same horn made war with the saints, and prevailed against them;  

 7:22    Until the Ancient of days came, and judgment was given to the saints of the most High; and the time came that the saints possessed the kingdom.  

 7:23    Thus he said, The fourth beast shall be the fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall be diverse from all kingdoms, and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces.  

 7:24    And the ten horns out of this kingdom [are] ten kings [that] shall arise: and another shall rise after them; and he shall be diverse from the first, and he shall subdue three kings.  

 7:25    And he shall speak [great] words against the most High, and shall wear out the saints of the most High, and think to change times and laws: and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time.  

 7:26    But the judgment shall sit, and they shall take away his dominion, to consume and to destroy [it] unto the end.  

 7:27    And the kingdom and dominion, and the greatness of the kingdom under the whole heaven, shall be given to the people of the saints of the most High, whose kingdom [is] an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey him.  

 7:28    Hitherto [is] the end of the matter. As for me Daniel, my cogitations much troubled me, and my countenance changed in me: but I kept the matter in my heart.  







Four Beasts, Four Kingdoms & The Little Horn



BABYLON



7:2    Daniel spake and said, I saw in my vision by night, and, behold, the four winds of the heaven strove upon the great sea.  

 7:3    And four great beasts came up from the sea, diverse one from another.  

 7:4    The first [was] like a lion, and had eagle's wings: I beheld till the wings thereof were plucked, and it was lifted up from the earth, and made stand upon the feet as a man, and a man's heart was given to it.  


1 In the first year of Belshazzar king of Babylon [Last king of Babylon. The first year of Belshazzar’s coregency (joint rulership) with his father Nabonidus was about 552B.C.] Daniel had a dream [literally “saw a dream”] and visions of his head upon his bed: then he wrote the dream [to preserve it for later generations], and told the sum of the matters [The Aramaic is difficult to translate. The word “sum” is re’sh, which means “head,” or “beginning.” The original Greek version reads, “eis, kephalaia logon,” which may be interpreted “summary.” Evidently Daniel wrote down the chief contents of the dream. Ehrlich translates the phrase, “the important details.”].

 2 Daniel spake and said, I saw in my vision by night, and, behold, the four winds of the heaven [Aramaic ruach, equivalent to the Hebrew ruach, which has a variety of meanings: “Air” (Jer 2:24, translated “wind”, “breath” (Job 19:17). human “spirit” (Ps 32:2), divine “Spirit” (Ps 51:12), and “wind” (Exo 10:13). Metaphorically the word is also used for vain & empty things (Jer 5:13). In the vision here it apparently denotes strife & war  (See Jer 49:36-37; 25:31-33) for that which arises as an result of the winds stirring up the symbolic sea of peoples are nations] strove [Aramaic, guach, which means to “stir up.” The form of the verb suggests continued action] upon the great sea [No specific body of water such as the Mediterranean is inferred. Like the beasts which arise from it the sea here is symbolic. Waters symbolize many peoples. Rev 17:15; Isa 57:20; 60:5].

3 And four great beasts [according to v 17 these beast symbolize “four kings which shall arise out of the earth.” For “kings” the LXX, Theodotiioans and the Vulgate read “kingdoms.” The fourth beast is specifically called the “fourth kingdom.” (v 23). These is general agreement that these four kingdoms parallel the four world powers symbolized by the metallic man of Dan 2] came up [the world powers represented did not rise contemporaneously but were successive, first, second etc.] from the sea, diverse [different. The diversity here spoken of was represented by the different metals in the vision of Daniel 2] one from another.

4 The first was like a lion [BABYLON - The combination of a lion and eagle was a common motif in Babylonian art. The winged lion was one of the forms of the beast often pictured in combat with Marduk, the patron god of the city of Babylon. On these lion, eagle combinations see S.H. Langdon, Semitic Mythology (“The Mythology of All Races” Vol. 13), pp. 118, 277-282, and Fig. 51 fascing p. 106 (winged lion), and pp. 116, 117 (lion-headed eagle); see illustrations of various Babylonian and Assyrian composite beasts in L.E. Froom, Prophetic Faith of Our Fathers, Vol. 1, p50, 52 Prophets referred to king Nebuchadnezzar by similar figures (Jer 4:7, 50:17, 43-44; Lam 4:19; Eze 17:3, 12). "For lo, I raise up the Chaldeans...[Babylon,] they shall fly as the eagle that hasteth to eat."  Hab 1:6-8. Babylon was Israel’s northern enemy. Jer 50:17; 4:7.


“The lion, the animal of Ishtar, was so favourite a subject at all times in Babylonian art, that its rich and lavish employment at the gate of Babylon, the Ishtar gate, is by no means abnormal.” The Excavations at Babylon, R. Koldeway, p46] and had eagle's wings [The lion was known for its strength, the eagle for its power and range of flight (See 2Sam 1:23). Nebuchadnezzar’s power was felt from the Mediterranean to the Perisan Gulf, and from Asia Minor to Egypt. This was fittingly represented by the lion equipped with eagles wings]: I beheld till the wings thereof were plucked [In its latter years Babylon lost the power and glory it possessed in earlier years. The plucking of his wings may refer to the humiliation of the proud Nebuchadnezzar, the king of Babylon during his period of madness (Daniel 4:31-37), or to the cowardice of Belshazzar, the last king of Babylon, who, instead of driving away his foes like a lion, shut himself up in the city, feasting and drinking with his lords, till he was killed, and the kingdom given to the Medes and Persians cf. Daniel 5:22-30], and it was lifted up from the earth, and made stand upon the feet as a man, and a man's heart was given to it  [A loss of lion like characteristics. “The [human] heart is... desperately wicked (Jer 17:9). Belshazzar’s wickedness was seen in his drinking from God’s sacred vessels (Dan 5:1-3)].




MEDO-PERSIA



 7:5    And behold another beast, a second, like to a bear, and it raised up itself on one side, and [it had] three ribs in the mouth of it between the teeth of it: and they said thus unto it, Arise, devour much flesh.  


Three ribs in the mouth - ribs come from the chest of an animal / beast. In this case defeated beasts. Beasts represent kingdoms. Ribs in the mouth, therefore, represent Medo-Persiaʼs three main conquests: Lydia 547BC; Babylon 539BC; Egypt 525BC. 


5 And behold another beast, a second, like to a bear [MEDO PERSIA - The Medes and the Persians correspond to the silver in the image. See Daniel 2:39. As a bear is in some respects inferior to the lion so the Medes & Persians were inferior to Babylon. They were nevertheles cruel and rapacious in character (See Isa 13:17, 18)], and it raised up itself on one side [No interpretation of this aspect is given in this chapter. However, a comaprison with Daniel ch. 8:3, 20 reveals that the empire was made up of two parts. Of the Medes and the Persians, the latter became the dominant power a few years before the dual Empire conquered Babylon. The margin’s alternative translation reads: “ it raised up one dominion.”], and it had three ribs in the mouth of it between the teeth of it [These are not interpreted in this chapter. A comparison with chapter 8 shows that Medo-Perisia conquered in three directions. The three ribs thus represent those the Medo-Persian Empire conquered as it expanded North- Babylon, West- Lydia and south- Egypt. (cf. the Ram of Dan 8:3-4, 20)]: and they said [the speaker is not identified] thus unto it, Arise, devour much flesh [Medo Persia conquered Babylon in the following way:

“[Babylon had] stored provisions enough for very many years; so they cared nothing for the seige; and Cyrus knew not what to do... whether, then someone advised him in his difficulty, or he perceived himself what to do, I know not, but this is what he did... drawing off the river by canal... he made the stream to sink till its former channel could be forded. When this happened the Persians who were posted with this intent made their way into Babylon by the channel of the Euphrates... and brought them to a miserable end.”

Herodotus, Book 1, sec 191; A.D. Godley, Loeb Classical Library, p239].





Grecia



 7:6    After this I beheld, and lo another, like a leopard, which had upon the back of it four wings of a fowl; the beast had also four heads; and dominion was given to it.  


6 After this I beheld, and lo another, like a leopard [GRECIA - The power succeeding Medo-Perisia is identified as Grecia (Daniel 8:21) Grecia must not be confused with classical Greece inasmuch as that period preceded the fall of Persia. The Grecia of Daniel was the semi-Greek Macedonian Empire founded by Alexander the Great which inaggurated what is called the Hellenistic period. Not until Alexander’s day could reference be made to the first “king” (ch. 8:21) of a Greek Empire who was a “mighty king” with “great dominion” (ch. 11:3)], which had upon the back of it four wings of a fowl [Indicating great speed and range. The leopard itself can move with great speed but its natural swiftness was inadequate to describe the amazing speed of Alexanders’s conquest. There is no other example in ancient times of such rapid conquest over such vast distances. Grecia, with leopard like swifness, conquered all before it. Both the leopard and the wings show that this kingdom would move with great speed (cf. Hab 1:8). “In this short space of 8 years Alexander had annexed an area of little less than 2 million square miles...[consider] The amazing rapidity of his conquests.” The Growth of European Civilization, A.E.R. Boak, p 59-60


The Leopard Daniel 7                  

Had four heads (Dan 7:6)                      

Had four wings (Dan 7:6)                   

Leopard followed bear - bear raised on one side (Dan 7:5).

The leopard followed a bear with 3 ribs in its mouth (Dan 7:5)


The He-Goat of Daniel 8:20-22

Had four horns (Dan 8:8)      

Moving so fast it “touched not the ground” (Dan 8:5)

The goat followed a ram which had one horn raised (Dan 8:3). Goat followed a Ram  “pushed” in 3 directions (Dan 8:4), 


Clearly the Leopard and the He-Goat represent the same power. The Goat is said  to represent Grecia, hence the Leopard of Daniel 7 represents Grecia. See also Dan 11:3-4]; the beast had also four heads [After Alexander the Great died his kingdoms was divided into four Helenistic kingdoms by four of his generals.




The victors divided the spoils;

  1. Lysimachus;

  2. Seleucus;

  3. Ptolemy;

  4. Cassander.”

Hellenistic Civilization, W.W. Tarn, p 9.


“Alexander the Great, king of Macedonia, overthrew the Persian Empire, carried Macedonian arms to India, and laid the foundation for the Hellenistic world of territorial kingdoms.” Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol 1. 1989, p240.


“...the ultimate division of the Empire into separate and independent kingdoms was foreshadowed by the division of the provinces among the chief generals of Alexander...the result of which was the formation of FOUR CONSIDERABLE KINGDOMS: Macedonia, Syria, Egypt, and Thrace.” Greece, E.S. Shuckburgh, p235.


Alexander died without arranging who was to succeed him. His half brother Philip and then his posthumous son Alexander were titular rulers under the regency of one or another of the generals and the empire was divided into a large number of provinces, the most important being controlled by about six leading generals called satraps. Neither puppet king had the authority to weld the vast empire together. During twelve years of struggle both ‘kings’ were slain and territories changed repeatedly.


Antigonus emerged as the first claimant for central power but was oppossed by a coalition of four leaders: Cassander, Lysimachus, Ptolemy and Seleucus. In 306 Antigonus declared himself king (jointly with his son Demetrius) and successor of Alexander. Thereupon the other four, abandoning their subordinate titles of satraps, declared themselves kings of their respective territories. At the battle of Ipsus (301 B.C.) Antigonus was killed, Demetrius fled and their territory was divided. This left four independent kingdoms, with the exception of small fragments, in place of Alexander’s empire. Demetrius had no kingdom just control over some coastal cities and a navy. He later displaced the heirs of Cassander and founded the Antigonid Dynasty in Macedonia. About 20 years after the division four reduced to three when Lysimachus was eliminated and much of his territory was taken by the Seleucid Empire or fell apart into small independent states, the most important being Pergamum. Macedonia, Egypt and the Seleucid Empire (sometimes called Syria because the eastern part was soon lost) continued on until they were all absorbed into the Roman Emire.


Many historians in giving a general overview omit the details but the fact remains that the Empire of Alexander did divide into four divisions as the prophecy foretold. Some seek to find the continuation of the four into Roman times by reckoning Pergamum as the successor of Lysimachus but whether we speak of three principal kingdoms and a group of smaller states it is significant that Alexander’s Empire did divide, for a time, into four kingdoms.


Note: Even in its divided state Alexander’s Empire, except for political centralization, constituted as much a unity as it ever had done under Alexander  and the various divisions were aptly represented as part of the same beast with multiple heads]; and dominion was given to it [The language of Greek became the common language of the ancient world in preparation for the promulgation of the gospel - the New Testament was written in Greek. The next Empire provided the roads and a period of relative peace for the initial spread of the gospel].  




"...the fourth beast shall be the fourth kingdom..." daniel 7:23



Rome


7:7    After this I saw in the night visions, and behold a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron teeth: it devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with the feet of it: and it [was] diverse from all the beasts that [were] before it; and it had ten horns.


The fourth beast is said to be the fourth kingdom of Daniel 2, then the third, second and first beasts are symbols of the third, second and first kingdoms of the Daniel 2 image. The fourth kingdom in Daniel 2 was ROME, hence the fourth beast of Daniel 7 is symbolic of ROME.


 7 After this I saw in the night visions [dream], and behold a fourth beast [ROME - The Roman Empire succeeded Greece

The transition from the Hellenistic kingdoms to Rome was gradual and no one event marks the change. Several events have been suggested as the significant turning point: By 200B.C. Rome was the mistress of the western Mediterranean. In 197B.C. she defeated Macedonia and set up the Greek states under her own protection. In 190B.C. Rome defeated Antiochus III and took the Seleucid territory as far as the Tarsus mountains. In 168B.C. she ended the monarchy in Macedonia and  divided it into four confederacoes and the same year warned Antiochus IV (Epiphanes) away from his attack on Egypt. In 146 Rome annexed Macedonia as a province and placed most of the Greek states under the governance of Macedonia.

If Rome’s control of the East is reckoned from the removal of the three Hellenistic kingdoms by Roman power then 168 may be regarded as the first step in this process. However the Seleucid and Ptolemaic kings remained on their thrones till 63 in Syria and 30 in Egypt. If the dates for the annexation of these three kingdoms as Roman provinces are chosen, the dates would be 146, 64, 30 respectively. Some emphasize 168B.C. because by this time Rome had conquered Macedonia and had saved Egypt from falling to the Seleucid kingdom by merely forbidding the invasion of Antiochus IV (Epiphanes). This demonstrated that Rome virtually controlled all three kingdoms even though she had as yet conquered only one of them.

The process was a gradual one and whatever date one choses as most significant it is clear that Rome absorbed the territory of Alexander from Macedonia to the Euphrates by 30B.C.], dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron teeth [this fourth beast parallels  the legs of iron kingdom of the image of Daniel 2:40]: it devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with the feet of it [the Romans made slaves of many of those they conquered]: and it was diverse from all the beasts that were before it [Rome was different because it was the first Republic. In fact it had 7 forms of government in total: Republican, Consular, Tribune, Decemvirate, Dictatorial, Imperial, and Kingly]; and it had ten horns [These 10 horns are said to be 10 “kings” (verse 24).

“King” and “kingdom” are used interchangeably in Daniel. The beasts were called “four kings”(verse 17) then the fourth beast was called “the  fourth kingdom.” (verse 23) .

THE TEN HORNS ARE THEREFORE TEN KINGDOMS.

The successive invasions of the Roman Empire by many Germanic tribes, and the subsequent replacement of the empire by a number of seperate kingdoms is a well established fact of  history. Because a score or more barbarian tribes invaded the Empire commentators varied with respect to who constituted the 10 kingdoms. The following list is the best:

(1) ALEMANNI (2) FRANKS (3) BURGUNDIANS (4) SUEVI (5) VANDALS, (6) VISIGOTHS (7) SAXONS (8) OSTROGOTHS  (9) LOMBARDS

(10) HERULI

The period of the empires division was one of great upheaval, confusion and change. See the article at the end of this chapter: “Who Constituted the ten Kingdoms.”


THE DECLINE & FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE

Runaway inflation, high taxes, sagging moral, and military threats contributed to the Roman emperor Constantine deciding to move the capital from Rome to the city of Byzantium in the East (later called Constantinople, later still Istanbul). This move occurred in 330A.D.

“At this time [A.D. 365], as if trumpets were sounding the war-note throughout the whole Roman world, the most savage peoples roused themselves and poured across the nearest frontiers.” History, A. Marcellinus, trans. J.C. Rolfe, Loeb Classical Library, p587-589.

By 476 A.D. the Western Roman Empire had been divided into ten kingdoms. These 10 horns correspond to the feet & toes of iron and clay in Daniel 2. See the article at the end of this chapter: “Who Constituted the ten Kingdoms.”

Referring to the four kingdoms Luther wrote:

“The first kingdom is the Assyrian, or Babylonian; the second, the Medes and Persians; the third the Greeks; the fourth, the Roman. In this explanation and opinion all the world are agreed.” Martin Luther in his Introduction to Comments on Daniel].





The Little Horn is Papal Rome.




7:8    I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among them another little horn, before whom there were three of the first horns plucked up by the roots: and, behold, in this horn [were] eyes like the eyes of man, and a mouth speaking great things.



Characteristics Of The Little Horn & The Papacy


The Little Horn
  1. It is a horn, which is symbolic of a kingdom -Dan 8:8,20)

  2. It arises in the territory of  the 4th beast - Rome, i.e. in Europe

  3. It arises after  the ten horns as it plucks up three -Dan 7:8

  4. It plucks up three of the ten horns -Dan 7:8

  5. It has a spokesman at its head - Dan 7:8,11 

  6. It became more stout (stronger) than the other horns (v 20)

  7. It is “diverse” (different) from the 10 horns (kingdoms) (v 24)

  8. It would persecute God's church -Dan 7:21,25

  9. It would reign for “3 1/2 times”, i.e. prophetic time - 1260 years (v 25) 

  10. It speaks great words i.e. blasphemes against God (v 25)

  11. It would think to change times and laws of God (v 25)


Papal Rome
  1. Papal Rome is a kingdom & not just a church.

  2. Papacy arose in Europe & retains the name Roman.

  3. Papacy arose after Rome divided into the European nations

  4. Papacy had the Vandals, Heruli & Ostrogoths destroyed

  5. Papal Rome has the Pope as it's infallible head.

  6. Papal Rome held immense power over the kings of Europe.

  7. Papacy is a RELIGIO-political power, a Church and a State. 

  8. The Papacy openly claims to have martyred Christians.

  9. The Papacy ruled Europe for 1260yrs to 1798

  10. The Papacy claims to be able to forgive sins (see Mark 2:7).

  11. The Papacy has changed the 7th day Sabbath to Sunday


PAPAL ROME IS A KINGDOM

“Sovereignty over Vatican city is exercised by the Pope in his function as the supreme head of the Catholic church.” New Catholic Encyclopaedia, Vol. 14, p557-558.


“The smallest sovereign country is the State  of Vatican City, which is an enclave within Rome and the seat of the Roman Catholic Church.” The Guinness Book of Records, 1997, p203.


The papacy is the kingdom represented by the little horn which arose  "among" the 10 horns (kingdoms) of Europe.


PAPAL ROME AROSE AMONG THE NATIONS OF EUROPE

“Whatever elements the barbarians and Arians left...[came] under the protection of the bishop of Rome, who was the chief person there after the empire’s disappearance. The Roman church in this way privily PUSHED ITSELF into the place of the Roman World-Empire, of which it is the actual continuation.” A. Harnack, What is Christianity? p269-270.


"Out of the ruins of political Rome, AROSE the great moral Empire in the 'giant form' of the Roman Church. " A. C. Flick. The Rise of the Mediaeval Church, 1909, p 150.


“The mighty Catholic Church was little more than the Roman Empire baptized...The very capital of the old Roman empire became the capital of the Christian empire. The office of Pontifex Maximus was continued in that of the pope.” ibid, p 148-149. [cf. Rev 13:2]


“Long before the fall of Rome there had grown up within the Roman Empire an ecclesiastical [church] state...[In 330 AD the Roman Emperor Constantine shifted the capital from Rome in the West to Constantinople in the East]...In absence of an emperor in the West, the popes rapidly gained influence and power, and soon built an ecclesiastical empire  that in some respects took the place of the old empire.” General History, Myers, p348, 316.


"Under the Roman Empire the popes had no temporal powers. But when the Roman Empire had disintergrated and its place taken by a number of rude, barbarous kingdoms, the Roman Catholic church not only became independent of the states in religious affairs but dominated secular affairs as well. At times, under such rulers as Charlemagne (768-814), Otto the Great (936-73). and Henry III (1039-56), the civil power controlled the church to some extent; but in general, under the weak political system of feudalism, the well organized, unified, and centralized church, with the pope at its head, was not only independent in ecclesiastical affairs but also controlled civil affairs. " C. Conrad Eckhardt, The Papacy & World-Affairs, p 1.


“The Popes filled the vacant place of the emperors of Rome, inheriting their power, prestige, and titles from paganism.” History of the Church, p 40


“From the 5th century, with the breakdown of Roman imperial authority in the West, the popes’ influence in central Italy increased as the people of the area relied on them for protection against the barbarian invasions.” Enc’ Britannica, 1998, art. papacy], before whom there were three of the first horns [kingdoms] plucked up by the roots



PAPAL ROME HAD THREE KINGDOMS DESTROYED

Among the major obstructions to the rise of the Papacy to political power were the Heruli, Vandals and Ostrogoths. These three kingdoms were Arian in faith (believed that Christ was  “...not truly divine but a created being.” Enc’ Brit’, Vol 1, 1998, p549) and this brought them into conflict with the rising papacy. On behalf of the Pope, Catholic Emperors of the East had them destroyed so that nothing but their names remain:.

Heruli 493 A.D., Vandals 534 A.D., Ostrogoths 538 A.D. See vs 24.

Note: As 10 kingdoms HAVE ALREADY arisen from what was the Roman Empire, and three kingdoms HAVE ALREADY been “plucked up” and as the little horn was to pluck them up, it is clear that THE LITTLE HORN IS ALREADY HERE]: and, behold, in this horn [were] eyes like the eyes of man [“...man looketh on the outward appearance, but the LORD looketh on the heart..” 1Sam 16:7

As is common with men, the papacy has eyes which can only see the external, though it has presumed to judge men’s inward morality. The eyes of men do not see things as God does.

Daniel 2 mentions the image of a man

Daniel 7 mentions the eyes of a man

Revelation 13 mentions the number of a man


Sir Issac Newton (1652-1727):

“But it was a kingdom of a different kind than the other ten kingdoms, having a life or soul peculiar to itself, with eyes and a mouth. By its eyes it was a Seer; and by its mouth speaking great things and changing times and laws, it was a Prophet as well as a King. And such a Seer, Prophet and King, is the church of Rome.”  Newton, Observations, p75], and a mouth [The Pope] speaking great things [See note on verse 25.



PAPAL ROME SPOKE GREAT WORDS (BLASPHEMY) AGAINST GOD

Speak blasphemies. The Bible defines blasphemy as  a human being claiming to be God and or claiming to be able to forgive sin (John 10:32-33; Mark 2:7). Every Roman Catholic Confessional is a fulfillment of this aspect of the Little Horn.


“The Pope is not only the representative of Jesus Christ, but he is Jesus Christ Himself, hidden under veil of the flesh.” The Catholic National, July, 1895.


“The pope is crowned with a triple crown as king of heaven, and earth, and purgatory.” Ferraris' Promptta Bibliotheca, Vol. VI, p 26, article "Papa."


“What only God can do by his omnipotence, the priest can also do...Indeed it is not too much to say that in view of the sublimity of their office the priests are so many Gods.” Dignity and Duties of the Priest, Alphonsus De Liguori, p35.


“Does the Priest truly remit [forgive] sins, or does he only declare they are remitted? The priest does really and truly remit the sin in virtue of the power given him by Christ.” Joseph Deharbe, S.J., A Complete Catechism of the Catholic  Religion, p275.


“The Pope is supreme judge of the law of the land...He is the viceregent of Christ, and is not only a priest forever, but is King of kings and Lord of lords.” La Civilta Cattolica, March 18, 1871.

 “The Pope is of so great authority and power that he can modify, explain, or interpret even Divine laws...THE POPE CAN MODIFY DIVINE LAW, since his power is not of man, but of God, and he acts in the place of God upon earth.” Lucius Ferraris, “Papa,” art. 2, in Prompta Bibliotheca

 "The pope has power to change times, to abrogate [change] laws, and to dispense [do away] with all things, even the precepts of Christ." Decretal, De Translantic Episcop



PAPAL ROME WORE OUT THE SAINTS OF THE MOST HIGH


The Papacy persecuted & killed Bible believing Christians.

"The Catholic church has persecuted. Only a tyro [beginner] in church history will deny that...One hundred and fifty years after Constantine the Donatists were persecuted, and sometimes put to death...Protestants were persecuted in France and Spain with the full approval of the church authorities. We have always defended the persecution of the Hugenots, and the Spanish Inquisition. Wherever and whenever there is honest Catholicity, there will be a clear distinction drawn between truth and error, and Catholicity and all forms of heresy. When she thinks it good to use physical force, she will use it."

A Roman Catholic publication, The Western Watchman, of St Louis, Dec. 24, 1908.


“Torture was little used from the 9th to 12th centuries, but with the revival of Roman law the process was re-established in the 12th century...In 1252 [Pope] Innocent IV sanctioned the infliction of torture by the civil authorities upon heretics, and torture came to have a recognized place in the procedures of the inquisitorial courts.” New Catholic Encyclopaedia, art. Torture.


The historian Will Durant observed:

"Compared with the persecution of heresy in Europe from 1227 to 1492, the persecution of Christians by Romans in the first three centuries after Christ was a mild inhumane procedure.


"Making every allowance required by an historian and permitted to a Christian, we must rank the Inquisition, along with the wars and persecutions of our time, as among the darkest blots on the history of mankind, revealing a ferocity unknown in any beast."  -- The Story of Civilization, volume 4, page 784.


"For professing faith contrary to the teaching of the church of Rome, history records the matyrdom of more than 100 million people." Brief Bible Readings, p16.


“That the Church of Rome has shed more innocent blood than any other institution that has ever existed among mankind, will be questioned by no Protestant who has a competent knowledge of history.” History of the Rise and Influence of the Spirit of Rationalism in Europe, reprint, W.E.H. Lecky, 1955, Vol. 2, p40.


“The noon of the papacy was the midnight of the world.” The History of Protestantism, J.A. Wylie, Vol 1, chap 4.


Llorente, the historian of the Inquisition supplies the following record of those burned in Spain alone:

“The horrid conduct of this holy office weakened the power and diminished the population of Spain, by arresting the progress of the arts, sciences, industry and commerce, and by compelling multitudes of families to abandon the kingdom; by instigating the expulsion of the Jews and the Moors, and by immolating on its flaming piles more than three hundred thousand victims.”

Juan Antonio Llorente [secretary of the Inquisition in Spain], The History of the Spanish Inquisition, p5


Walter M. Montano, a former Catholic priest, asserts in his book, Behind the Purple Curtain, that it has been estimated that fifty million people died during the twelves hundred years of the Dark Ages.

See Walter M. Montano, Behind the Purple Curtain, p91


A. Hyatt Verrill, in his book, The Inquisition, relates some of the atrocities instigated by the Church in the Netherlands. He stated thatthe reign of terror in the Netherlands was beyond words to describe. King Philip himself boasted that the Inquisition in his area was “much more pitiless than that in Spain.”


Tens of thousands were tortured or burned during the first two years of Philips tenure as king. But it would not be until the coming of the cruel Duke of Alva in 1567 that cruelties became indescribable. In less than three months after his coming to power, Alva caused eighteen hundred people to be burned alive. on one gala occasion five hundred were burned en masse. At the close of Holy Week in one year eight hundred heretics were slain. In the city of Antwerp eight thousnad lives were taken by the Catholic Church at one time. Upon his departure fromn the Netherlands, Alva boasted that more than eighteen thousand people had died at his order.

See Verrill, The Inquisition, p236.


PAPAL ROME SHALL THINK TO CHANGE TIMES & THE LAW OF THE MOST HIGH


“Think to change times and the law.” R.S.V. As these points are given to help identify this power the imagined change cannot refer to a change in merely human law because all kingdoms change human law and such a changed would not help identify this power.

As the horn's "great words” were against God, and as it persecuted God's saints, we may conclude that the law it thought to change was God's Law.


The A:B, A’:B’ arrangement of verse 25 supports this view:

A. And he shall speak [great] words against the most High

B. and shall wear out the saints of the most High

A’  and think to change times and laws

B’ and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time.


This pattern indicates that the words directed against the Most High pertain to the times & laws of the Most High. A: In like manner the persecution of the saints was to occur during the Papal powers prophetic 3 1/2 time (1260 year) reign.


“Think to,” Heb. ‘sebar,’ means “to intend, to strive, to endeavour.”  A deliberate, wilful attempt is indicated. In consciously tampering with the Divine Law this power “opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God” 2 Thess  2:4.

That it thinks to change "times" strongly suggests that the part of God's Law it thought to change was the seventh day Sabbath, the only commandment directly concerning time.


Indeed the papacy claims to have deliberatelly & wilfully changed God’s law. Although the Ten Commandments are found in Roman Catholic versions of the Bible, Catholics are instructed from Catechisms (books of doctrinal instruction). Catholicism has removed from Catholic Catechisms the second commandment forbidding bowing before images and also claims that (without any Scriptural authority) they have changed God’s Sabbath from the 7th day of the week to the first day. “The mystery of iniquity (sin),” and “the man of sin” (2 Thess 2) are terms applicable to this power.


The fact that Christ died to remove our sins, rather than change His Law to clear us , shows that God's Law of love (Rom 13:8-10), the only part of the Bible that God wrote Himself, is just and unchangeable. Because God’s law is unchangeable the papacy could only “think to change” it.


Christ said, “THINK NOT that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil. For verily I say unto you, Till HEAVEN & EARTH pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled.” Matt 5:17-18

Note that Christ refers to the existence of the heavens and the earth. The Sabbath commandment alone points to the Creator.

Antichrist THINKS TO have changed the law by altering the commandment which refers to the creator of the heavens and the earth.

ROMAN CATHOLIC AUTHORITIES CLAIM TO HAVE CHANGED THE LORD’S SEVENTH-DAY  SABBATH TO SUNDAY, THE FIRST DAY

“We observe Sunday instead of Saturday because the Catholic Church transferred the solemnity from Saturday to Sunday.”

The  Convert's Catechism of Catholic Doctrine (1957 ed.), P. Geiermann, p50. Note: This work received the "apostolic blessing" of Pope Pius X, Jan. 25, 1910.


“How, we ask, have you [Protestants] managed to receive her [the Catholic Church's] teaching all your life, in direct opposition to your recognized teacher, the Bible, on the Sabbath question?” The Christian Sabbath, pamphlet, (2nd ed.; Baltimore).


“The Catholic Church...by virtue of her divine mission, changed the day from Saturday to Sunday.” The Catholic Mirror, Sept. 23, 1893.


"Q. Have you any other way of proving that the Church [Catholic] has power to institute festivals of precept?

A. Had she not such power, she could not have done that in which all modern religionists agree with her;- she could not have substituted the observance of Sunday the first day of the week, for the observance of Saturday the seventh day, a change for which there is no Scriptural authority." A Doctrinal Catechism, (3rd US ed.) S. Keenan, p 174.


“Now every child in school knows that the Sabbath day is Saturday, the seventh day of the week; yet with the exception of the Seventh-day Adventists, all Protestant denominations keep Sunday instead of the seventh day because the Catholic Church made this change in the first stages of Christianity.” Winnipeg Free Press, April 21, 1884, Father Gerritsma


“Sunday is a Catholic institution, and its claims to observance can be defended only on Catholic principles...” The Catholic Press, Sydney, Australia, August 25, 1900.


“Of course the Catholic Church claims that the change [of the Sabbath to Sunday] was her act...AND THE ACT IS A MARK of her ecclesiastical power and authority in religious matters.” H.F. Thomas, Chancellor of Cardinal Gibbons, Nov. 11, 1895.


“Sunday is our MARK of authority...The church is above the Bible, and this transference of Sabbath observance is proof of the fact.”

Catholic Record of London, Ontario, Canada, Sept. 1, 1923.


This action of the papacy was recognized about 450 years ago by  Melacthon, the Protestant Reformer and colleague of Martin Luther:

“He changeth the tymes and the lawes,...or when they changed ye Saterday into Sondaye...They have changed God's lawes and turned them into their own tradicions to be kept above God's precepts.” Exposicion of Daniel the Prophete, 1545, Melancthon  p119.

“[Dan 7:25 quoted] The change in the fourth commandment exactly fulfils the prophecy.” GC 446



PAPAL ROME HAD DOMINION OVER GOD'S PEOPLE AND RULED EUROPEAN TERRITORY FOR 1260 YEARS

and they shall be given into his hand until a time [Aramaic,  Iddan]  and times [Without evidence to the contrary we might rightly understand this are two times because two the simplest plural. An understanding of the Aramaic here confers that two is intended:

In some languages, including Aramaic, there is not only the singular (one) and the plural (many) but also the dual (two). “Times” here is from the dual of the Aramaic Iddan and should thus be more correctly “two times.”] and the dividing of time [a half being the simplest division. The total is thus 3 1/2 times.


3 1/2 TIMES REPRESENTS 1260 LITERAL YEARS

“a time, two times, and half a time.” R.S.V.

The majority of ancient and modern interpreters say that the Aramaic word “Iddan,” (“time”) means years. It is undoubtedly used this way in Dan 4:16, 23, 25, 32. The Greek version of the Scriptures, the Septuagint, translates the "seven times" of Dan 4:16 as “seven years,” thus 3 1/2 times = 3 1/2 years.

Comparing Rev 12:14 & Rev 12: 6 shows that 3 1/2 times = 1260 days and 1260 days = 42 months (cf. Rev 11:2, 3; 13:5).

Thus the 3 1/2 ‘years’ are not literal years but ‘years’ of only 360 days each (3 1/2 x 360 = 1260). We might thus call them prophetic years. A prophetic year is of course made up of prophetic days and a prophetic day stands for a literal year (Eze 4:6; Num 14:34). See note on Dan 9:25.


Thus 3 1/2 times = 1260 days = 1260 years.


This period is mentioned 7 times in Dan 7:25; Dan 12:7; Rev 13:5; Rev 11:2; Rev 11:3; Rev 12:6; Rev 12:14.


3 1/2 YEARS END WITH DEATH

This period of 3 1/2 years is seen in other places:

Christ’s ministry lasted 3 1/2 years (1/2 a prophetic week) and ended with His death.

The drought lasted 3 1/2 year in Elijah’s time and ended with the death of the prophets of Baal.

The Apostle’s ministry to the Jews lasted 3 1/2 years from the death of Christ to the death of Stephen at which time the gospel went to the Gentiles. 

The 'ministry' of the beast (Revelation 13) lasted 3 1/2 years and ends with it’s deadly wound.

Based on the pattern we see we ought to expect that the little horn’s 3 1/2 years ‘ministry’ ends with it’s death and indeed it did...


The 3 1/2 times or 1260 years began in 538AD (See notes on v 24).


“In the 6th century the papacy had become firmly established. Its seat of power was fixed in the imperial city, [Rome] and the bishop of Rome [pope] was declared to be the head over the entire church. PAGANISM had given place to the PAPACY. The dragon had given to the beast “his power, and his seat, and great authority.” Rev 13:2. And now began the 1260 years of papal oppression foretold in the prophecies of Dan 7:25; Rev 13:5-7.” GC 54.


From 538AD. the 1260 year supremacy of the papacy reached to 1798. 538 + 1260 years = 1798.


IN 538 THE PAPACY BEGAN ITS 1260 YEARS SUPREMACY WHICH ENDED WITH THE PAPACY BEING ABOLISHED IN 1798

“The ULTIMATE HUMILIATION of the Church came when Pius VI was driven from Rome by the French armies in 1798.” Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1989, Vol. 26, p938.


“In 1798 he [Berthier]...made his entrance into Rome, ABOLOSHED the PAPAL GOVERNMENT and established a secular one.” The Encyclopedia Americana, 1941 ed.


"Berthier advanced to the city by forced marches; summoned the castle of St. Angelo, allowing only four hours for its evacuation by the papal troops; the convicts were set at liberty; the gates of the city secured by the French; the pope, all the cardinals except three, and the whole people of Rome, made prisoners at discretion. . . . Shortly afterwards, Berthier made his triumphal entry into Rome; and a tree of liberty being planted on the capitol, . . . a proclamation was issued, declaring . . . a free and independent republic, under the special protection of the French army. A provisional government was acknowledged, as established by the sovereign people; and every other temporal authority emanating from the pope was suppressed, nor was he any longer to excercise any function." John Adolphus, The History of France, Vol. 2 (London: George Kearsley, 1803), pp. 364, 365.


"The object of the French directory was the destruction of the pontifical government, as the irreconcilable enemy of the republic. . . . The aged pope [Pius VI] was summoned to surrender the temporal government; on his refusal, he was dragged from the altar. . . . His rings were torn from his fingers, and finally, after declaring the temporal power ABOLISHED, the victors carried the pope prisoner into Tuscany, whence he never returned." George Trevor, Rome: From the Fall of the Western Empire (London: The Religious Tract Society, 1868), pp. 439, 440.


"When, in 1797, Pope Pius VI fell grievously ill, Napoleon gave orders that in the event of his death no successor should be elected to his office, and that the Papacy should be discontinued. But the Pope recovered; the peace was soon broken; Berthier entered Rome on 10th February 1798, and proclaimed a Republic. The aged Pontiff refused to violate his oath by recognizing it, and was hurried from prison to prison into France. Broken with fatigue and sorrows, he died . . . [in] August 1799, in the French fortress of Valence, aged 82 years. No wonder that half Europe thought Napoleon's veto would be obeyed, and that with the Pope the Papacy was dead."

Joseph Rickaby, "The Modern Papacy," in Lectures on the History of Religions, Vol. 3, [lecture 24, p. 1] (London: Catholic Truth Society, 1910).


“The papacy was extinct: not a vestige of its existence remained; and among all the Roman Catholic powers not a finger was stirred in its defence. The eternal city had no longer prince or pontiff; its bishop was dying a captive in foreign lands; and the decree was announced that no successor would be allowed in his place.” Rome: From the Fall of the Western Empire, George Trevor, p440.


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